CAPTIVITY OF JUDAH to FALL OF MEDO-PERSIA
('BT' = 'Before Tribulation')
- DESOLATION BEGINS 2590 BT
| JERUSALEM BREACHED 2580 BT 0 - 0
70 | |
| Evil-Merodach 30 - 30 37th capt of Jehn (Jubilee!)
| MEDO-PERSIAN EMPIRE 57 - 57 BABYLONIAN EMPIRE FALLEN
| Darius the Mede |
- Cyrus (1st & 4th yr)2520 BT 60 - 60 CAPTIVITY ENDED
2nd Cyrus, Foundation 61 -
Darius the Persian(Xerxes) -
/ Artaxerxes |
2nd Darius the Persian -
6th Darius Temple Ezr 6:15 -
Nehemiah starts 20th Art N2:1 -
Nehem leaves 32nd Art N5:14 -
Ahasuerus (of Esther) -
Ahasuerus 12th Est 3:7 -
Purim days established |
GREEK EMPIRE - MEDO-PERSIAN EMPIRE FALLEN
(Alexander The Great)
* NOTES *
- The Babylonian captivity and the Medo-Persian period are timed around
two major prophetic periods.
1) 2,580 years - This prophetic period is referenced in the 1290 days
of Daniel 12:11 (ie doubled).
2580 years = Abomination to Abomination
= Nebuchadnezzar and the princes in the
'middle gate' (of the temple), refer
Jer39:3, to the future Great Tribulation.
2) 2,520 years - The well known 7 years x 360 (days per year) period
inferred in the '7 times' of Daniel 4:16.
- There are two 70 year periods which define the captivity and rebuilding
1) 70 years of captivity - ending with the decree of Cyrus
2) 70 years of desolation - ending with the rebuilding of Jerusalem.
- Zechariah 1:12 records that God had been angry 70 years
with His people. This anger had prevented the completion
of the temple. From the 2nd of Darius the Persian the
building began again. A search of the archives was
required to confirm the decree of Cyrus due to the
amount of time which had elapsed, refer Ezra 5:17, 6:1.
- There is a 70 years mentioned in 2Chr 36:21 which was designated
as a period for the land to enjoy its rest. The indication is that
over the preceding period the required land Sabbath had not been
Over each fifty year cycle, 7 land sabbaths years and 1 Jubilee
rest year were supposed to have been observed.
Therefore, over a five hundred year period there should have been
70 land sabbaths and 10 Jubilee rest years.
Hence a need for a 70 years of land sabbaths (no allowance for
Jubilee rest years) would indicate no land sabbath had occurred
over the preceding 430 years (being 500 years - 70 years). This
would ensure that over a five hundred year period the right number
of land sabbath rests would have taken place.
So what was the event which occurred 500 years prior to the release
from captivity? This was when Solomon started to rule and started to
build the first temple. (In this chronology this was 3020 BT and the
task was finished twenty years later in 3000 BT.) So we have the
start of the building of the second temple exactly 500 years after
the start of the first temple.
- King Jehoiachin was released from his prison in the 37th year of the
captivity, the year the reign of Nebuchadnezzar ended and the reign
of Evil-Merodach began. Refer 2 Kings 25:27-30 & Jer 52:31-34.
This release from prison did not allow Jehoiachin to return to
Jerusalem (and rule again as king of Judah) but it did grant him
a privileged place amongst the other captive kings.
Since the concept of 'release' is embodied in the Jubilee year concept
(Lev 25:10) there is the suggestion that this 37th year of Jehoiachin's
captivity was a Jubilee year.
- A reading of the 'Book of the Law' at the Feast of Tabernacles, the
feast of the seventh month, is highlighted in Nehemiah 7:73-8:18.
This was a requirement of a 'year of release' (year of Jubilee) refer
to Deut 31:9-13,24-26.
- There was a delay between the overthrow of the Babylonian Empire
(Dan 5:30-31) and the decree of Cyrus which resulted in the release
of the Jews (2Chron 36:22-23 & Ezra 1:1-4).
- Darius the Mede was the overall king of the Medo-Persians
at the time of the fall of the Babylonian Empire and at
that time Cyrus (a Persian) was in his first year as the
king of Persia. (The reigns of both kings being restarted
following the fall of the Chaldeans - refer the inference
of Dan 9:1).
By the third year of the reign of Cyrus the Jews had still
not been released! This being the reason why Daniel was
mourning and eating no 'pleasant' food, Dan 10:1-3.
- Daniel 10:2 should read "three 'weeks' of days".
The word for weeks is in the masculine form,
rather than the more normal feminine form.
Each of the three 'weeks' in this text is a
reference to the 7 weeks and 1 day which fell
between the wave sheaf offering and the Feast
of Weeks each year. It suggests that Daniel
performed his 'mourning' at this time in the
years following the victory of Darius the Mede
until the decree of Cyrus. Three such periods
suggest at least 2 years and 50 days elapsed
before Cyrus became the ruling king over all
of Medo-Persia and issued the decree to rebuild
Jerusalem. (Note, that when Cyrus became the
overall king over Medo-Persia his reign count
was restarted - the decree was said to take
place in his 1st year, Ezra 1:1.)
- In Daniel 9:1 there is mention of an 'Ahasuerus' who is an
ancestor of Darius the Mede. (While the Hebrew says 'Ahasuerus'
the NIV and some other translations depict 'Xerxes'.)
As Darius the Mede is sixty two years old at the time of the
fall of the Babylonian Empire (Dan 5:30-31); this 'Ahasuerus'
who is 'Darius the Mede's ancestor can not refer to any of
the subsequently arising kings of the Medo-Persian Empire.
This prior Ahasuerus should not be confused with either
the 'Ahasuerus' of Ezra 4:6 or the later Ahasuerus mentioned
in the book of Esther.
- In chapter 4 of Ezra we have a list of some of the kings ruling
Medo-Persia. This list starts with Cyrus king of Persia (Ezra 4:5),
then mentions 'Ahasuerus' (which many translations understand to
be a reference to 'Xerxes') in Ezra 4:6, then mentions Artaxerxes
(Ezra 4:7) and finally mentions Darius king of Persia (Ezra 4:24).
In this chapter the word 'reign' (in Ezra 4:6 & 4:24) is the word
'dominion' indicating these were the dominant ruling kings.
- Therefore an initial king list, suggested by Ezra chapter 4, would
- Darius the Mede
- Cyrus - decree 1st yr, to build
- 'Ahasuerus' / Artaxerxes - decree start of, to cease
- Darius the Persian - decree 2nd yr, to build
- Ahasuerus (book of Esther).