When one reads the account of the Flood, which is recorded in Genesis 6:1 to
9:19, it can be quite difficult to determine its overall chronology.
Scripture mentions several periods of time;
7 days (before Flood) - Gen 7:4
7 days (before Flood) - Gen 7:10
7 days (after Flood) - Gen 8:10
7 days (after Flood) - Gen 8:12
40 days and 40 nights of rain - Gen 7:4,12
40 days of deluge - Gen 7:17
40 days - Gen 8:6
150 days - Gen 7:24
150 days - Gen 8:3
Scripture also presents several key dates;
17th of 2nd month, year 600* - Gen 7:11
17th of 7th month, year 600 - Gen 8:4
1st of the 10th, year 600 - Gen 8:5
1st of 1st month, year 601 - Gen 8:13
27th of 2nd month, year 601 - Gen 8:14
* Calendar year of the life of Noah
Due to the ambiguity present in this area of Scripture there has arisen
many different perspectives.
How should we distinguish error from wisdom? What should we look for?
1) Does the presented view show a coherent connection between
the various dates and periods stated in Scripture.
2) Is there a proper resolution of the conflict between the
verses which repeatedly imply the Flood lasted 40 days and
the clear indication that it lasted for a period of at least
3) Is there a satisfactory clarification of exactly when the
A Derived Flood Chronology.
Noah told to start - 1/1
to load the ark |
| after 7 days - Gen 7:4
Start 40 days/nights - 8/1
40 days/nights | after 7 sabbath days - Gen 7:10
of rain | (4/1,11/1,18/1,25/1,2/2,9/2,16/2)
Great Deluge starts - 17/2 DEEP BROKEN, - Start 150 days - Start 280
| HEAVEN | | days
| OPENED | 150 days |
| | - Deluge |
| | - Gen 7:24 |
| | | 40 Sabbath
| | | days
| | | - Gen 7:17
Ark Rests - 17/7 DEEP & - Waters start | - Gen 8:6
| HEAVEN | to decrease |
| STOPPED, | |
| RAIN | |
| RESTRAINED | |
| | |
| | 150 days |
Window Opened - 27/11 | - Dry Wind - 280 days
| | - Gen 8:3 ended
Mountains seen - 1/12 (10th month?) |
Raven sent out - 3/12 |
| 7 days,(implied)|
Dove sent out - 10/12 |
| 7 days,Gen 8:10 |
Dove has olive leaf - 17/12 FLOOD ABATED - 2nd 150 days ended
| 7 days,Gen 8:12
Dove not return - 24/12
Ground 'parched' - 1/1/601
* 27th day of 2nd month - Earth 'ashamed'
* Notes *
1) 30 Day Months
The first issue one observes from the provided Flood information
is that it indicates the months were always composed of 30 days.
Hence, we have 150 days from the 17th of the 2nd month to the
17th of the 7th month and a further 150 days from the 17th of
the 7th month to a presumed 17th of the 12th month.
2) The Weekly Sabbath Cycle
The repetitive mention of 7 day periods indicates that the Sabbath
cycle is important in determining the final Flood chronology.
Indications are present in the text which suggest the weekly
Sabbath fell on the following dates;
Year 600, Month 1 - 4th, 11th, 18th, 25th
Month 2 - 2nd, 9th, 16th, 23rd, 30th
Month 3 - 7th, 14th, 21st, 28th
Month 4 - 5th, 12th, 19th, 26th
Month 5 - 3rd, 10th, 17th, 24th
Month 6 - 1st, 8th, 15th, 22nd, 29th
Month 7 - 6th, 13th, 20th, 27th
Month 8 - 4th, 11th, 18th, 25th
Month 9 - 2nd, 9th, 16th, 23rd, 30th
Month 10 - 7th, 14th, 21st, 28th
Month 11 - 5th, 12th, 19th, 26th
Month 12 - 3rd, 10th, 17th, 24th
Year 601 - Month 1 - 1st, 8th, 15th, 22nd, 29th
Month 2 - 6th, 13th, 20th, 27th
Note: 1) Many of the important Flood dates fall on,
or immediately following, weekly Sabbath days.
2) The 17th of 2nd month, the start of the deluge,
was a day which followed a weekly Sabbath.
3) Two Periods of 150 Days
Two periods of 150 days are mentioned. (These represent
an important structural element in the compilation of
the Flood's chronolgy.)
i) Gen 7:24 - The first 150 days defines the period of
rising waters and spans,
17th of 2nd month to 16th of 7th month.
Gen 7:24 And the waters prevailed on the earth
one hundred and fifty days.
[NB: On the following day, the 17th of the 7th month,
the ark rested on the mountains of Ararat, refer
Gen 8:4. ]
ii) Gen 8:3 - The second 150 days defines the period of
decreasing waters and spans,
17th of 7th month to 16th of 12th month.
Gen 8:3 And the waters receded continually from
the earth. At the end of the hundred
and fifty days the waters decreased.
[ NB: The Hebrew word found at the end of Gen 8:24
(translated 'decreased' by the NKJV) is Strong's
2637 and in other verses is commonly rendered
'fail', 'lack' or 'want'. If one replaces the
word 'decreased' with either 'failed', 'lacked'
or 'wanted' the intended meaning becomes clear.
It seems that many compiling chronologies of
the Flood have thought this comment was merely
a repetition of the 150 days mentioned in
Gen 7:24. ]
4) Peak of the Flood
Some have thought the Flood account would have had a delay
between the peak of the Flood waters and the settling of
the ark upon the mountains of Ararat.
However, it is worth noting that the ark had a height of 30
cubits (Gen 6:15) and the Flood only prevailed 15 cubits
above the mountains (Gen 7:20).
Assuming the ark was half submerged the ark would rest on the
peak of the mountains of Ararat at the height of the Flood!
5) When was the Ground was Completely Dry?
Many translations indicate the Flood ended on the 27th day of
the 2nd month of the 601st year of Noah.
Gen 8:14 And in the second month, on the twenty
seventh day of the month, the earth was
However, Genesis 7:6 states Noah was 600 years old during the
duration of the Flood (which excludes the possibility that the
Flood continued longer than 12 months).
Gen 7:6 Noah was six hundred years old when
the flood of waters was on the earth.
In addition Genesis 8:13, a prior verse, had already advised
'the waters were dried up from the earth' and the 'surface of
the ground was dry' at the start of 601st year.
Gen 8:13 And it came to pass in the six hundredth
and first year, in the first month, the first
day of the month, that the waters were dried
up from the earth; and Noah removed the covering
of the ark and looked, and indeed the surface
of the ground was dry.
The solution to this dilemma can be found by examining the meanings
of the Hebrew words used.
Gen 8:13 - 1/1/601
a) 'dried' - Strong's 2717 - to 'parch' (through drought)
by analogy to 'desolate' or
b) 'dry' - Strong's 2720 - from 2717
'parched' or 'ruined'
Gen 8:14 - 27/2/601
a) 'dried' - Strong's 3001 - to 'be ashamed', 'confused'
for water to 'dry up' and
for herbage to 'wither'.
Note - If the ground was 'parched' on the 1/1/601 it
was already dry and the Flood had ended!
- The Hebrew word for 'ashamed' in verse 14 must
be understood in relation to the subject being
discussed. The subject in this verse is not
water, but rather the earth.
Why would the earth would be 'ashamed' on the 'seven and twenty day'
of the second month?
Obviously so soon following the Flood there would still be no
New Year's grain ready to harvest.
What is being implied is that on the seven and twentieth day
of the second month there was a required offering or provision
of grain which could not occur (due to the Flood).
In the Old Covenant the first required New Year's grain offering
is the presentation of a sheaf of grain during the Feast of
Unleavened Bread in the month of Ahib (meaning 'green ears').
This was performed by the Levitical Priesthood so it is unlikely
that any earlier form of worship, applying at this time, would
have required this of Noah.
[The month of Ahib would normally be the first month. However,
God's typical calendar year tended to be shorter than a normal
solar year so provision had to exist to compensate for the
difference. It seems that this verse confirms that the second
month would become the month of Ahib (ie, green ears) if green
ears of grain were not present in the fields in the first month.]
The 27th date is too late in the month to be a candidate for
the wave sheaf day (which occurred after a weekly Sabbath and
between the 15th and 21st). However, in this year the 27th day
of the 2nd month did represent the first weekly Sabbath
following what should have been the start of the New Year's
harvest. So in this year the 27th of the second month was the
first day the people of faith were to have brought to God an
offering of some of the New Year's grain harvest.
6) Forty Days and Forty Nights
When people think of the Flood they link it to the period of
'40 days and 40 nights'.
As a result when they study this topic in Scripture they are
somewhat surprised to see that the text is picturing a Flood
which spans over ten months.
They also can be further confused when they notice a period
of 150 days seems to define how long it took for the Flood
to reach its maximum height.
Hence, there is a need to look closely at exactly what
Scripture does say about the '40 days and 40 nights'.
There are two verses which use the terminology 'forty days
and forty nights'.
Gen 7:4 "For after seven more days I will cause
it to rain on the earth forty days and
forty nights, and I will destroy from
face of the earth all living things
that I have made."
Gen 7:12 And the rain was on the earth forty days
and forty nights.
The deluge is described in Scripture as being composed of
water coming from - fountains of the deep
- windows of heaven
- rain (refer Gen 8:2)
Genesis 7:12 talks only about 'rain'.
Genesis 7:4 initially mentions 'rain' and then goes on to
talk about the deluge. But the question has to be asked,
"Does the later text referring to the deluge relate to
what happens during or following the '40 days and nights'?".
Notice that the 17th day of the 2nd month (when the deluge
was unleashed) would equate to the 47th day of the 600th
year. Hence a literal 7 days folowed by a following 40 days,
as depicted in Gen 7:4, would have the last day of the 40
days being the day of the start of the Flood!
Indicating that perhaps the '40 days and 40 nights' of rain
may have only served the purpose of dampening the surface of
Apart from Gen 7:4, where a 7 day period is mentioned, there
is also a 7 day period in Gen 7:10.
Gen 7:10 And it came to pass after seven days
that the waters of the flood were on
If the two 7 day peiods were identical then the 7 day period
would have to start on the 10th day of the 2nd month and not
the 1st day of the 1st month of the year.
However, we can still retain the first day of the first month
timing if we envision the 7 days of Gen 7:10 to be 7 weekly
Sabbath days. The days being 4/1/600, 11/1/600, 18/1/600,
25/1/600, 2/2/600, 9/2/600 and 16/2/600.
Notes 1) Placing the '40 days and 40 nights' prior to
the Flood provides a clear distinction between
this period and the longer 150 day period of
Gen 7:24. Otherwise they would share a mutual
starting point and this 40 day period would be
somewhat 'lost' in the longer 150 day period.
2) Any rainfall prior to the deluge should not be
considered part of the Flood as normal events
continued to occur right up to the start of
Matt 24:38 "For as in the days before the
flood, they were eating and drinking,
marrying and giving in marriage, until the
day that Noah entered the ark,"
7) Seven Days for the Loading of the Ark
One typically envisages the entry of the animals and Noah's
family into the ark. So a period of 7 days on the surface
can seem quite appropriate.
However, if one also considers the necessity to load food
(and other miscellaneous items) sufficient to span a period
of ten months then a much longer period of time would seem
to be needed.
Hence, the Gen 7:10 seven day reference is likely to be a
reference to the passing of 7 weekly Sabbaths. The 16th day
of the 2nd month being the seventh Sabbath. The initial
instruction being given on the first day of Noah's 600th year.
8) Other Forty Day Verses
Apart from the two '40 days and 40 nights' verses there are
two other 40 day references.
Gen 7:17 Now the flood was on the earth forty days.
The waters increased and lifted up the ark,
and it rose high above the earth.
Gen 8:6 So it came to pass at the end of forty
days, that Noah opened the window of
the ark which he had made.
Both these verses can be easily associated with the duration
of the Flood, ie from 17/2/600 to the day when Noah first
opened the window of the ark? A period of forty Sabbaths.
The weekly Sabbaths being,
23/2/600 3/5/600 13/7/600 23/9/600
30/2/600 10/5/600 20/7/600 30/9/600
7/3/600 17/5/600 27/7/600 7/10/600
14/3/600 24/5/600 4/8/600 14/10/600
21/3/600 1/6/600 11/8/600 21/10/600
28/3/600 8/6/600 18/8/600 28/10/600
5/4/600 15/6/600 25/8/600 5/11/600
12/4/600 22/6/600 2/9/600 12/11/600
19/4/600 29/6/600 9/9/600 19/11/600
26/4/600 6/7/600 16/9/600 26/11/600
The window of the ark being opened on the 27/11/600.
The day after the 40th Sabbath.
[ Note: 1) Others commonly associate Gen 7:17 with the
period of the '40 days and 40 nights'.
2) As the timing of Gen 8:6 means it can not be
associated with '40 days and 40 nights' verses
it is commonly believed to be talking about
the passing of 40 literal days since the date
when 'the tops of the mountains were seen'
(referred to in Gen 8:5). ]
9) Closing Seven Day Intervals
In deriving the chronology of the Flood it is important to
place the sequence of closing 7 day intervals so that they
have relevance and connection to the events and dates which
finish the Flood.
Scripture records two later 7 day periods.
Gen 8:10 And he waited yet another seven days,
and again he sent the dove out from
Gen 8:12 So he waited yet another seven days
and sent out the dove, which did not
return again to hm anymore.
Another 3rd earlier 7 day period is implied by Gen 8:10,
ie 'he waited yet another seven days'.
So in summary,
- The window of the ark is opened (following a Sabbath) and
after 6 days the raven is released.
- After 7 days the dove is first released and returns after
finding no resting place.
- After 7 days the dove is again released and returns with a
freshly picked olive leaf.
- After 7 days the dove is once more released and does not
- After 6 days the final day of the year, and of the Flood,
arives and is followed by the day Noah removes the covering
of the ark.
10) Mountains Seen
Gen 8:5 And the waters decreased continually
until the tenth month. In the tenth
month, on the first day of the month,
the tops of the mountains were seen.
The first portion of the verse indicates that the waters
continued to decrease up until the start of the tenth month.
The second portion of the verse continues to reinforce this
dating stating that on the first day of the tenth month the
mountain tops were seen.
If one assumes that the 10th month is the 10th calendar month
of the year, then we have a date with no connection to any
other provided date or provided time period. (However, this
date does fall after a weekly Sabbath. The 30th day of the
9th month being a Sabbath. The date 1/10/600 occurs 32
complete Sabbath periods from the start of the deluge.)
[ Some chronologies pickup on the 40 days mentioned in the next
verse and have Noah opening the window of the ark 40 days after
the 1st of the 10th month. However, this site's presented view
considers the 40 days in the subsequent verse as indicating a
period of 40 Sabbath days. ]
Another alternate view of Gen 8:5 is to consider the '10th month'
as the 10th calendar month of the Flood. So that the mountains
are seen on the 1st day of the 11th month.
With views that try to make a connection to 1/10/600 or 1/11/600
one should consider if there exists,
1) a poor connection to the dove events,
2) a poor connection between the dating of the dove
events and the finishing of the 2nd period of 150
3) a poor connection between the dating of the dove
events and the next major date, which is the 1st
day of the new year.
Another less obvious perspective is to consider that the 10th
month has to refer to a month after Noah first opens the
window of the ark. With the perspective that Noah could not
have seen the tops of the mountains without this window having
first been opened. (Even though the water may have receded
from the tops of the mountains at a much earlier timing.)
This viewpoint would indicate the counting of the months would
have begun with the third month of the year.
Any flood chronology which has a 40 day period after the start
of the deluge could make a connection to the 3rd month (the
40 days would end in the third month) . However, another
connection one could consider is a link to an observance of
the Feast of Weeks (a celebration of 'firstfruits' observed
in the third month). Or perhaps it may simply be that the
third month represented the start of the time when only those
inside the ark remained alive.
11) Prophetic Significance
The Flood and the periods associated with it are likely to have
For example the 150 day period is also alluded to in Rev 9:5 as
NB: As the 'five months' of Rev 9:5 is a part of the description
of the 5th trumpet there is perhaps a suggestion that the
duration of the 6th trumpet might also symbolically correlate
to the second 150 day 'dry wind' period of the Flood.