'PREPARATION DAY'
OF PASSOVER



Preparation Day leaven removal

Friday or 14th of Abib

Passover unleavened bread




The title 'Preparation Day' is referred to 6 times in the New Testament.
(Matt 27:62; Mark 15:42; Luke 23:54; John 19:14,31,42.)

When we look at the usage of the term Preparation Day
it is apparent that it is used exclusively in respect
to the day Christ died. 
day Christ died
Some consider Preparation Day is a reference to the day prior to the weekly
Sabbath, ie Friday. Others consider Preparation Day is the day leaven was
removed in preparation for the Feast of Unleavened Bread.

What is clear is that Jesus Christ died the day before a Sabbath.

    Mark  15:42  Now when evening had come, because it was the
                 Preparation Day, that is, the day before the
                 Sabbath,


Many not being familiar with the commanded Old Covenant annual sabbath days
simply view this as a clear reference to the weekly Sabbath.

However, Jesus Christ died in the first month of the Jewish year, just prior
to the annual sabbath known as the 1st day of the Feast of Unleavened Bread.

    Lev   23:6   And on the fifteenth day of the same month
                 is the Feast of Unleavened Bread to the LORD;
                 seven days you must eat unleavened bread.
            :7   On the first day you shall have a holy convocation;
                 you shall do no customary work on it.

Christ died on the 14th day of the first month, the day before the annual
sabbath of the 15th day of the first month.

This is made more apparent in the Gospel of John.

    John  19:31  Therefore, because it was the Preparation Day,
                 that the bodies should not remain on the cross
                 on the Sabbath (for that Sabbath was a high day),
                 the Jews asked Pilate that their legs might be
                 broken, and that they might be taken away.

The expression 'high day' being a reference to an annual commanded sabbath.

Some have read "for that Sabbath was a high day" to mean the next day was
a weekly Sabbath and also the annual 15th commanded day of rest. However,
the text can also be understood to mean that the next day was a sabbath
(ie rest day) and the type of rest day approaching was an annual sabbath.


Hence there remains uncertainty as to whether 'Preparation' can be firmly
linked to the day prior to a weekly Sabbath or not.

 

PRIOR TO WEEKLY SABBATH?


The notion that 'Preparation Day' relates to the day before a weekly
Sabbath places emphasis on the understanding that the Old Testament
does not permit food preparation on the Sabbath (no baking or boiling,
refer Exodus 16:23,35:3). Therefore, prior to the Sabbath there was a
need for any food which needed cooking to be prepared in advance.


Whether this view of the 'Preparation Day' is correct can in part be
decided on whether or not Jesus Christ was crucified on the day before
a weekly Sabbath. If He was crucified 2 or 3 days prior to the weekly
Sabbath this view would have to be rejected.


Whether 'Preparation Day' could be a Scriptural reference to Friday, or
not, can partly be determined by studying further the question of what
day of the week Christ died. (Please refer to the pages which discuss
which day Jesus Christ died.)


REMOVAL OF LEAVEN!

Feast of Unleavened Bread


Another view of the "Preparation Day" is that it involved removal of
leaven in preparation for the 7 days of the Feast of Unleavened Bread.

The Feast of Unleavened Bread started on the 15th and run for 7 days.
It required the children of Israel to abstain from leavened bread.
To prevent the accidental eating of leavened bread all leaven and
leavened products were to be removed from their houses.


    Exod  12:19  For seven days no leaven shall be found in
                 your houses, since whoever eats what is
                 leavened, that same person shall be cut off
                 from the congregation of Israel, ...


The removal of leaven took place on the day before the 7 day Feast of
Unleavened Bread began. It took place on the 14th, the day Christ died.
      
    Exod  12:15  Seven days[of Passover celebration] you
                 shall eat unleavened bread. On the first
                 day you shall remove leaven from your
                 houses. For whoever eats leavened bread
                 from the first day until the seventh day,
                 that person shall be cut off from Israel.
removal of leavened

The leaven was to be removed on the 14th prior to the start of the
14th Passover celebration and prior to the 7 days mentioned in verses
Exodus 12:18-19, ie 15th-21st.


One of the verses defining the 'Preparation Day' refines further the
meaning of this term.


    John  19:14  Now it was the Preparation Day of the Passover,
                 ... 


The Passover is often thought of as a specific day (or more accurately
one of two specific days), but it was also a 7 day period of time which
started on the 14th and ended on the 20th. 
THE SEVEN DAY 'PASSOVER'


THE TITLE 'PREPARATION DAY'?


While many translations show the expression "Preparation Day" suggesting
the day concerned could rightly be named "Preparation Day" the New Testament
Greek does not actually depict this title.

In the verses Matt 27:62, Mark 15:42, John 19:14, John 19:31 and John 19:42
the Greek does not say "Preparation Day", but just "Preparation". 


The Luke 23:54 verse uses a slightly different expression.

    Luke  23:54  And the day was the Preparation, ...
    
             or  And the day of Preparation, ...


In addition the second portion of Mark 15:42 is different in the Greek;

    Mark  15:42  ..., the day before the Sabbath.

is a translation from one Greek word meaning "pro-Sabbath".
Hence,

    Mark  15:42  ..., before Sabbath.  

is a more accurate reflection of the Greek.


So these minor changes mean "Preparation" was not a title of that day,
but rather an activity which was to occur during some of the hours of
that day.

THE HOURS OF PREPARATION


What were the actual hours of Preparation?


The start time can be understood by comparing the following texts.

    Mark  15:25  Now it was the third hour, and they
                 crucified Him.

    John  19:14  Now it was the Preparation [remove 'Day']
                 of the Passover, and about the sixth hour.
                 And he said to the Jews, "Behold your King!".
            :15  But they cried out, "Away with Him,
                 away with Him! Crucify Him!"  ...
            :16  So he delivered Him to them to be crucified.
                 So they took Jesus and led Him away.  


As the gospel of Mark goes on to talk about the period of darkness lasting
from the sixth hour to the ninth hour (Mark 15:33), and this is confirmed
in the gospel of Matthew (Matt 27:45), the indication is that the third
hour mentioned in Mark 15:25 refers to the 3rd hour of daylight. Hence,
Mark teaches that Jesus was crucified about 9.00am.
  
With this understanding in mind it can be seen that the sixth hour of
Preparation, mentioned in John 19:14, means that the start time for
Preparation was 3.00am!


The finishing time for Preparation can be inferred.

This day was the 14th and leaven could not be eaten or found in their
homes from the 15th to the 21st of that month (Exod 12:18-19). The 14th
Passover was a temple based celebration which began at sunset and
continued through to the end of the 14th. So those attending the 14th
temple Passover celebration would have had to have ensured their
dwellings were clean of leaven before attending.

The indication is that sunset was the finishing time of Preparation.


So 'Preparation' was therefore a period of time which fell on the 14th
day of the first month and spanned a period of 15 hours from 3.00am in
the morning to sunset.




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