'Evening Morning 2,300'
This cryptic phrase is found in Daniel 8:14.
Dan 8:13 Then I heard a holy one speaking; and another holy
one said to that certain one who was speaking,
"How long will the vision be, concerning the daily
sacrifices and the transgression of desolation,
the giving of both the sanctuary and the host to
be trampled under foot?"
:14 And he said to me, "For two thousand three hundred
days; then the sanctuary shall be cleansed."
The phrase 'For two thousand three hundred days' being a translation of
'Until evening morning two thousands and three hundreds'
THE NUMBER - '2,300'
Much speculation has been advanced suggesting how the number 2,300 should
Due to the surrounding text this period is often considered to represent
either a literal 2,300 days or a literal 1,150 days (1,150 evenings plus
1,150 mornings). Historically based interpretations commonly advance
theories which have periods initiated by Antiochus Epiphanes around
168-171 BC and which terminate with the restoration of the temple by
Another common perspective is the placement of a similar period of 2300
days (or 1150 days) into a future setting following the desecration of
a literal or symbolic Jerusalem.
All the above views place emphasis upon the understanding that the number
2300 should be considered as a measure of the time during which Jerusalem
will be trampled by the little horn. However, the question asked in Daniel
8:13 can also be interpreted from the viewpoint of how long would it be
before the little horn would arise to cast down the sanctuary.
Therefore, an additional common approach is to apply the 'day for a year'
principle and interpret the 'evening morning 2300' as being a reference
to either 2,300 years (or 1,150 years).
Some, trying to link the 2300 notion to the ram and goat vision, have
thought that as the Greek empire is commonly thought to have come into
existence in 331 BC the number may define the period between the rise of
the Greek empire and end-time events, ie a period of 2,300 years.
Others have attempted to link the texts of Daniel chapters 8 and 9,
and have proposed that the period of 2,300 years began with the command
to rebuild Jerusalem. Often reference is made to the period 457 BC to
When one looks closely at Daniel chapter 8 and the seventy weeks prophecy
(Dan 9:24-27) they do appear to show a common thread. They share the
notion of the ceasing of the daily and the destruction of the sanctuary.
[ NB: - Daniel 9:26 speaks of the destruction of Jerusalem and
the sanctuary. While Dan 8:10-14 mentions the trampling
of the sanctuary and host.
- Dan 9:27 speaks of the ending of the daily and so does
Dan 8:11-12. ]
The NKJV reads
Dan 8:14 And he said to me, "For two thousand three hundred
days; then the sanctuary shall be cleansed".
In this case the NKJV may not have made the right word choice for the
Hebrew word, Strong's H6663, translated 'cleansed'.
Strong's defines the Hebrew word translated 'cleansed' as meaning;
"to be (causatively, make) right (in a moral or forensic sense)".
So the renderings, 'made right', 'justified' or 'vindicated' would have
[NB: 1) The word H6663 in Dan 8:14 is in the form .
The character simply means 'and'. That leaves ,
a form of H6663 which is only encountered in Daniel 8:14.
The basic form of the word H6663 is .
2) The Pulpit Commentary states: "The word translated "cleansed"
really means "justified"; it is the only example of this part
of the verb." ]
There is also something else which should be discussed, another word
choice. The word rendered 'sanctuary' or 'holy place' is H6944.
Many considering 2300 to be talking about a short period of time,
occurring at the end-time, are convinced by the wording 'sanctuary
made right'. This is reinforced by many renderings, such as;
NIV - "the sanctuary will be made right"
NASB - "then the sanctuary shall be properly restored"
YLT - "then the holy place declared right"
OJB - "then shall the Kodesh (Sanctuary) be vindicated"
The word for 'sanctuary' is Hebrew H6944 or H4720. When H6944 is used
it is commonly in the form meaning 'the sanctuary'. Although
this can also mean 'the Holy Place'.
In the form it is sometimes rendered 'sanctuary', but it is
commonly rendered 'holy'.
Often discussion over the latter portion of Dan 8:14 focuses upon the
rendering of H6663 (ie 'cleansed', 'justified', 'vindicated'). However,
not enough consideration is given as to whether in this context H6944
should be rendered 'sanctuary' or 'holy place' or 'holy' or 'holiness'.
When one looks at the nature of the Daniel chapter 8 prophecy it can be
seen that the text does not discuss what occurs after the reign of the
little horn. It does not discuss the subsequent rebuilding of the city
or the temple. It does not discuss the appearance of New Jerusalem. For
this reason it is unlikely that the very brief latter portion of Dan 8:14
should be understood to be addressing this issue. (Nevertheless, it is
understandable that those of the Jewish faith may wish to read into the
Dan 8:14 response an indication of a restored sanctuary. Yet, there really
seems to be no justifiable reason to do so.) Focus should still be upon
the fall of this symbolic city.
For this reason, also considering the more common rendering of it
is suggested that Dan 8:14 is actually talking about the justifying /
vindicating of the righteousness of God. This being done via the rendering
of His prophesied judgment against Jerusalem.
So a more 'literal' rendering of Dan 8:14 would read;
Dan 8:14 And saying to me, "until evening morning two
thousands and three hundreds and shall be
[ NB: The sequence of H6663 and H6944 as
presented in English translations is
frequently the reverse of that found
in the Hebrew. ]
Let us keep in mind that Daniel chapter 8 is associated with Daniel
The purpose of Dan 9:24 is to document a period of grace in which
symbolic Jerusalem could change its ways and prevent the unfolding
of what is prophesied against it.
The destruction of this Jerusalem and its sanctuary will be final.
Symbolic 'Old Jerusalem' will not be rebuilt. The sanctuary of
'Old Jerusalem' will not be re-established!
[ NB: There is a New Jerusalem which will arise,
but Daniel chapter 8 does not discuss this. ]
Note, the wording 'evening morning' is often inappropriately translated
The twin notions of 'evening' and 'morning' are associated with several
- the days of creation mentioned in Genesis chapter 1
- the morning and evening lamb sacrifices
- the morning and evening attendance of the lampstand
Only in the creation account of Genesis chapter 1 do we find the Daniel
chapter 8 sequence, ie 'evening' mentioned before 'morning'.
Therefore, on the surface there initially seems to be a connection between
the 'evening morning' of Daniel 8:14 and the repeated Genesis chapter 1
The Genesis chapter 1 references are in the form 'H1961 evening and H1961
morning'. Where 'H1961' is defined by Strong's as "to exist, ie, be or
become, come to pass".
[ For many bible students Genesis chapter one is viewed as a literal
account of a physical creation process. Some others prefer to view
these creation days as symbolic and therefore envisage that the
physical creation process took place over an extended period of time.
A third perspective is that chapter one of Genesis is a symbolic
representation of God's overall plan of spiritual creation. ]
What has tended to occur is the assumption that a day can be split into
two portions, one being 'evening' and the other being 'morning'.
Few have studied the use of the words 'evening' and 'morning' and how
they are actually utilised elsewhere in Scripture.
However, even a surface study of these words indicates they are usually
utilised as point in time references. 'Evening' usually refers to the
time 'sunset' (but not exclusively), while 'morning' usually refers to
the time 'sunrise' (but not exclusively).
So in summary, the exact meaning which we should derive from the Daniel
'evening morning' wording is a little uncertain and it is something that
a comprehensive interpretation of this prophecy would have to clarify.
This is discussed more fully below.
THE DANIEL 8:13 QUESTION
To better understand the meaning of the answer 'evening morning 2300'
we really need to give serious consideration to just what question
was being asked in the previous verse.
The NKJV presents the question of Daniel 8:13 as follows;
Dan 8:13 ... "How long will the vision be, concerning the
daily sacrifices and the transgression of desolation,
the giving of both the sanctuary and the host to be
trampled under foot?"
Let us consider each point;
'the vision' - Is this talking about the entire vision starting
with the rise of the ram, or is it talking about
the final aspect when the little horn is active?
'the daily' - Is this referring to when the daily is performed,
or does it refer to when the daily is removed?
'transgression' - The transgression of the priesthood, which causes
God to raise up this little horn to oppose the
daily (Dan 8:12); or the transgression of the
little horn against the daily?
'trampled' - The figurative trampling of the sanctuary and
host due to a corrupt priesthood, or the more
direct trampling performed by the little horn.
It is precisely this degree of ambiguity present in the Daniel 8:13
verse which has led to both long and short term views of the meaning
of the response 'evening morning 2300'.
Consequently, we observe interpretations which range from the relatively
short duration of 1,150 days to the much longer duration of 2,300 years.
A more 'literal' rendering of Dan 8:13 reads;
Dan 8:13 ... "Until when the vision, the continual
and the transgression one-desolating to give
and sanctuary and host trampled"
1) In respect to the notion of 'vision', it has to be
kept in mind that Daniel chapter 8 speaks not only
about the daily offering, but also portrays a vision
of a ram dominion followed by a goat dominion.
Within the prophecy there is the subtle suggestion
that there is a connection between the duration of
the ram and goat dominions and the duration of the
daily sanctuary offering.
2) The 'continual' is a reference to the daily sacrifices
and offerings as it is in Numbers chapter 28, but it
may also be applied to all that is stated in the Old
Covenant to have ongoing 'continuance' in respect to
3) Keep in mind that Daniel chapter 9, in Dan 9:27, also
highlights a time when 'sacrifice and offering' will
be brought to an end.
4) In the prior verse, verse 12, the notion of ongoing
'transgression' is provided as the reason for why
God allows the horn to oppose the daily.
(Dan 9:24 also links the notion of 'transgression'
as one of the reasons for God's judgment against
5) In Dan 8:13 the 'one desolating' is clearly the
'little horn' (of Dan 8:9-13) which brings an end
sacrifices and offerings.
6) The notion of 'to give' in Dan 8:13 is explained
by verse 12 as an 'army' or 'host' given over to
the little horn to oppose the daily.
7) The Hebrew word rendered above as 'one-desolating'
is Strong's reference H8074. In other translations
it is rendered 'desolation', 'desolate', 'horror'
or 'astonishment'(as in Young's Literal Translation).
According to Strong's it means,
"to stun (or intransitively, grow numb),
i.e. devastate or (figuratively) stupefy
(both usually in a passive sense).".
This Hebrew word is also present in the verses,
Lam 3:11, Dan 9:27,12:11.
An important issue we notice from the above points is that the presented
words 'transgression' and 'desolating-one' each relate to two different
entities. The notion of 'transgression' relates to the ongoing priesthood
transgression in Jerusalem (ie, sanctuary and host) and 'desolating-one'
is a direct reference to the little horn.
Hence, with this understanding it can be seen that the expression
'transgression of desolation' would represent an invalid combination
It seems the correct rendering of the latter portion of Dan 8:13 is;
Dan 8:13 ... "Until when? The vision, the continual
and the transgression; one-desolating given
and sanctuary and host trampled"
This question can be understood in two different ways;
A) How long the vision, the continual and the transgression,
before the little horn is given an army and the sanctuary
and host are trampled?
OR B) 1) How long the vision, the daily and the transgression?
2) How long the little horn (with his army) will cause
the sanctuary and the host to be trampled?
So we will have to seek clarification as to whether one or two questions
are being asked in this verse.
A NEW PERSPECTIVE
There are a number of commonly encountered interpretations of the
'evening morning 2300'. However, what we seek is the true meaning!
[ NB: And the true meaning may require us to grasp the presence
of symbolic presentation. ]
From an overview we can observe the following.
- Daniel was not able to fathom the meaning of the Daniel
chapter 8 vision and he could not find anyone else able
to interpret it for him (Dan 8:27).
However, in the subsequent chapter, verses 9:22-23 imply
the understanding of the subsequent 70 weeks prophecy
would assist in explaining the teaching of chapter 8.
- Common themes are present in both chapter 8 and 9
- The fate of the sanctuary - chapter 8, v13, 'trampled'
- chapter 9, v26, destroyed.
- A state of desolation - chapter 8, v13 & v24.
- chapter 9, v26 & v27.
A RELATED VERSE
When looking through Scripture for other references to the value '2300'
one does not quickly encounter any related texts. However, using the
less well known '1 year can equal 50 years' principle (derived from
the Jubilee observance) we can locate a related text.
John 2:19 Jesus answered and said to them, "Destroy this temple,
and in three days I will raise it up."
:20 Then the Jews said, "It has taken forty-six years to
build this temple, and will You raise it up in three
Needless to say 46 multiplied by 50 = 2,300.
John 2:20 introduces the notion of the destruction of the temple after
the expiry of 46 years of building. Daniel chapter 8 introduces the
idea of the casting down of the sanctuary after the expiry of a period
of 2300. Both texts are suggesting;
1) a period of building
2) a subsequent destruction.
EXPLAINED BY CHAPTER 9
How does Daniel chapter 9 provide insight into the number 2300?
Looking at the 70 weeks prophecy, in chapter 9, we can see the period
of 69 weeks is composed of 7 + 62 weeks. At the start of the 7 weeks
building began (v25) and at the expiry of the 62 weeks Jerusalem and
its sanctuary are destroyed (v26). Thus the overall period of 69 weeks
also encompasses the notions of 1)building and 2)subsequent destruction.
There is an inference the period indicated by
***** the number '2,300' found in Daniel chapter 8 *****
***** is also being referred to as '69 weeks' in *****
Daniel chapter 9!
What period is being referred to as '69 weeks'? Some would say 483 years
(ie 69 x 7 years), but they would be wrong! The prophetic period of
'69 weeks' refers to the period of 69 Jubilee years, ie 69 x 50 years or
For a full explanation of the 70 weeks prophecy click on the following
link and follow the subsequent pages.
[NB: The 3,450 years define a period from when the children of Israel
were 'planted' in the land of Canaan to the future destruction of
a symbolic Jerusalem and its sanctuary (ie, the start of the Great
WHY '2300' EQUATES TO 3,450 YEARS
What is the connection between '2300' and 3,450 years?
Daniel chapter 8 places heavy emphasis upon the regular daily sacrifice.
Bible students are generally aware that under the Jewish law two lambs
were to be offered every day, one in the morning and one in the evening,
refer to Exod 29:38-42 and Num 28:3-8.
However, what is less well known is that the book of Ezekiel documents
a further daily lamb offering in the morning, offered on behalf of the
Ezek 46:13 You (prince) shall daily make a burnt offering to the
LORD of a lamb of the first year without blemish; you
shall prepare it every morning.
:14 And you shall prepare a grain offering with it every
morning, a sixth of an ephah, and a third of a hin of
oil to moisten the fine flour. This grain offering is
a perpetual ordinance, to be made regularly to the LORD.
:15 Thus they (priesthood) shall prepare the lamb, the grain
offering, and the oil, as a regular burnt offering
(Note: The quantity of flour and oil offerings required
to accompany the 'prince' offering differs to
that specified for the two lambs.)
The 'prince' offering is also mentioned in 2Kings.
2King 16:15 ... burn the morning burnt offering, the evening grain
offering, the king's burnt sacrifice, and his grain
offering, with the burnt offering of all the people
of the land, their grain offering, and their drink
Over a period of 1,150 mornings and 1,150 evenings, a total of 2,300
occasions, 3,450 lambs would have been offered as regular daily offerings!
2,300 daily lambs would have been offered in the morning and 1,150 daily
lambs in the evening.
So it seems the number 2300 when connected with the regular daily
sacrifice is representing the period prior to the fall of Jerusalem.
The 3,450 lambs are representing a duration of 3,450 years!
So the answer to the question of how long the daily offerings and the
priesthood transgression is 3,450 years. The daily spans the period from
the time the children of Israel were settled in the Promised Land to the
yet future prophetic fall of the sanctuary.
While this interpretation fits in well with the notion of 'daily', one
has to ask what it has to do with the duration of the ram and goat
(the entities which are defined in verses 20 & 21 as the kingdoms of
Medo-Persia and Greece respectively).
The only conclusion is that the provided definitions of verses 20 & 21
are symbolic explanations. That 'Media', 'Persia' and 'Greece' are
definitions being used to symbolize other entities.
For a fuller discussion of the ram and goat vision, click below.
THE 'EVENING MORNING' COMMENT
We have now identified the meaning of the number 2300 (as 3,450 years)
and seen that it is the answer to the question of the duration of "the
vision, the continual and the transgression".
However, we still need to consider how we should understand the
'evening morning' aspect of the response.
Are there any factors which indicate the 'evening morning' portion of
the response is to be understood as quite separate from the 2300 number?
1) The sequence 'evening morning' differs from the sequence
which is always used in respect to the daily. (The daily
offering sequence is always 'morning evening'!).
2) In chapter 8 of Daniel there is a subsequent 'evening morning'
reference and this reference is singular!
While our translations often show the plural form;
Dan 8:26 And the vision of the evenings and mornings ...
[ from NKJV ]
The Hebrew actually shows these words in the singular
form with a 'the' preceding each.
Dan 8:26 And the vision of the evening and the morning ...
The indication is that there was only one evening
and one morning presented in Daniel 8:14!
3) We are also informed in Dan 8:26 that "the evening and
the morning" have an end-time setting.
Dan 8:26 And the vision of the evening and the morning
... Therefore seal up the vision, for
it refers to many days in the future.
So the meaning of the singular evening/morning aspect of this
prophecy has a fulfilment in the end-time.
There is also a further subtle indication of an end-time setting.
Dan 8:26 And the vision of the evening and the morning
Which was told is true; ...
This affirmation "which was told is true" is somewhat
Dan 12:7 Then I heard the man clothed in linen, who was
above the waters of the river, when he held up
his right hand and his left hand to heaven, and
swore by Him who lives forever, that it shall be
for a time, times, and half a time; and when the
power of the holy people has been completely
shattered, all these things shall be finished.
So let us consider what a literal single 'evening' and a literal
single 'morning' may represent.
A notional 'Day'?
Some would quickly make a connection to the repeated evening morning
references encountered in Genesis chapter one. This is where the proper
sequence of 'evening' then 'morning' is found. So does an 'evening' and
a 'morning' represent a single day?
It may seem so, until one looks at how these two words are literally
used in Scripture. The topic of their use is actually quite complex.
- Each of these terms refer to two points of time. There are two
points of time called 'evening' (one of which is sunset). This
is why we encounter in the Hebrew the expression "between the
evenings". For a list of verses, refer the following;
There are also two points of time called 'morning' (one of which
Exod 12:10 You shall let none of it remain until morning,
and what remains of it until morning you shall
burn with fire.
[NB: The inedible portions were burnt with fire
at sunrise, but the first reference to
'morning' is not sunrise! The edible portion
all had to be eaten during that Passover
meal, i.e. before the death of the first-
born at midnight.]
Mark 1:35 Now in the morning, having risen a long while
before daylight, He went out and departed to a
solitary place; and there He prayed.
[NB: This verse shows that there is a time called
'morning' which occurs a long time before
the coming of daylight.]
When used to refer to a period of time, and not a point in time,
'evening' may be considered to apply to the time between sunset
and the other point in time called 'evening'.
Likewise, 'morning' when used to refer to a period of time may be
considered to apply to an early 'morning' point in time and the
subsequent arrival of sunrise.
In this site the second 'evening' and the other 'morning' are both
defined as references to the time 'midnight'.
This indicates a literal understanding of these two terms, when used
to indicate periods of time, would refer to the entire period of the
night. (However, not to a full 24 hour day.)
A symbolic Night?
The prophetic notion of judgment occurring during a symbolic 'night'
fits well with verses such as;
John 9:4 I must work the works of Him who sent Me
while it is day; the night is coming when
no one can work.
Dan 7:7 After this I saw in the night visions, and
behold, a fourth beast, dreadful and terrible,
exceedingly strong. ...
[NB: A specific mention of 'night'; and this
being associated with the end-time 4th
beast. (Notice, that in Dan 7:2 we are
already told the vision of the four
beasts occurred at night. So the further
Dan 7:7 mention suggests a symbolic
meaning only relevant to the 4th beast.)]
Amos 5:18 Woe to you who desire the day of the LORD!
For what good is the day of the LORD to you?
It will be darkness, and not light.
(And other similar verses like Ezek 32:7-8
and Isa 13:9-11.)
A Symbolic Midnight
The terms 'evening' and 'morning' are normally used to refer to points
in time. While it is well understood that these terms are used to refer
to sunset and sunrise respectively, it is less understood that they can
also each refer to midnight!
For a fuller discussion refer to;
The twin notions of 'evening' and 'morning' can both refer to a single
time, ie 'midnight'. Just as they do in Genesis chapter one.
What this means is that the 'evening morning' portion of the response
in Dan 8:14 could be inferring a symbolic 'midnight'!
A prophetic point in time.
This would mirror effectively what is portrayed with the lamb Passover
ceremony - where the chosen lamb had to be consumed before midnight.
Symbolically, consumption of the lamb before midnight would equate to
blood over the doorway - and provide protection from death.
This point in prophetic time would be the pivot point when the corrupt
daily offering would come to an end.
'Evening Morning' Options
In Dan 8:14 the expression 'evening morning' can not refer to a full
24 hour day.
However, the term may refer to either;
1) a period of symbolic night, or
2) a symbolic midnight.
Both these options would explain why Dan 8:26 would refer to these
terms as singular.
1) A single duration of evening (sunset to midnight) plus a single
duration of morning (midnight to sunrise); or
2) A single point in time which can be defined as both 'evening'
Which is the correct perspective?
'EVENING MORNING' UNDERSTANDING
The symbolic night perspective has the following shortcomings;
1) If Dan 8:13 is understood as two questions (as previously discussed)
then the answers 'evening morning' followed by '2300' would be
answering the questions in the opposite sequence.
[ If Dan 8:13 is understood as two questions then it would be
asking how long would be the daily (before it was stopped) and
then how long would be the reign of the little horn. So an
'evening morning 2300' response would be answering the questions
in the inverse order, defining the duration of the little horn
and then the duration of the daily offerings. ]
2) It tends to suggest that the duration of Great Tribulation can be
segregated into two spans of time. The first called 'evening' and
the second called 'morning'. The problem with this is there is a
lack of ancillary support for such a scenario.
[ A) The 4th beast of Daniel chapter seven has two sequential forms.
Firstly the 10 horn form and secondly the little horn and 7 horn
form. While the 4th beast is connected to the end-time (via the
second mention of night) both forms do not have to be associated
with the Great Tribulation. Notice, though, that trying to make
the first form of the beast equal to the first half of the night
and the second form equal to the second half of the night creates
a mismatch for the timing of the rising of the little horn.
Daniel chapter 7 would be indicating the little horn arises half
way through the Great Tribulation and Daniel chapter 8 would be
indicating he arises at the start of the Great Tribulation.
B) The example of the Flood during the days of Noah may also
suggest a two span view of the Great Tribulation. A time of rising
waters and a time of receding waters. However, the 5th Trumpet of
the book of Revelation (a timing prior to the Great Tribulation)
shows a 5 month connection (Rev 9:5). So that indicates there is
only a receding of the Flood waters for connection to the Great
Tribulation. Hence, this also indicates the Great tribulation is
not divided into two spans of time. ]
The symbolic midnight perspective has its advantages;
1) It provides chapters 7 & 8 of Daniel with an equivalent timing for
the rise of the little horn.
The fall of symbolic Jerusalem and the rise of the little horn in
Daniel chapter 8 would correspond with the event which marks the
second form of the Daniel chapter seven 4th beast. (When 3 horns
are removed by at the appearance of a little horn, Dan 7:8.)
2) It does not require, or imply, the break-up of the Great Tribulation
period into more than one span of time.
3) It makes the response 'until evening morning 2300' a more coherent
It indicates, "UNTIL 'midnight', 2300"
Hence, the response does not merely provide either one or two answers.
The response actually clarifies its answer, as "until midnight, .... ".
What this tells us is that Daniel in Dan 8:13 was only asking one
That question was, "How long would the daily continue before it was taken
away." How much time would pass before the destruction of the sanctuary
Daniel's question is answered by the number, '2300'.
In conclusion, God has in chapter 8 simply presented an overview of
His spiritual work.
An overview, which spans the time from when Israel was settled in the
Promised Land through to the start of the Great Tribulation.
A Great Tribulation coming upon a symbolic 'Jerusalem'. When the time
specified by "Seventy 'Sevens'" has been reached.
Great Tribulation equates to the time of the reign of the 'Little Horn'.
It is a time of judgment, it ensues because of the unwillingness of
'Jerusalem' to repent.
While this prophecy does not discuss it, following the events mentioned
in this prophecy, the prophesied 'New Jerusalem' will be manifest.