sacrificed bull

Old Covenant - Animal Sacrifices
at the Temple

sacrificed ram





How many animals were routinely sacrificed at the Temple? 


Animals were sacrificed according to four schedules.

                        - Daily
                        - Weekly Sabbath
                        - Appointed New Moons
                        - Annual Assembly Occasions


* DAILY SACRIFICES *



Timing                     Lambs            Grain           Drink
                                         (Fine flour
                                        & Pressed Oil)

Numbers 28:3-8
People's burnt offering

'in morning'                 1    1/20 ephah  +  1/8 hin    1/4 hin

'between the evenings'       1    1/20 ephah  +  1/8 hin    1/4 hin
                             -    ----------------------    --------
                             2    1/10 ephah  +  1/4 hin    1/2 hin

Ezekiel 46:13-15
Prince's burnt offering

'in morning in morning'      1    1/6 ephah   +  1/3 hin      nil

                           ---
                             3



***  Three lambs offered each day!  ***

PEOPLE'S BURNT OFFERING


    Num  28:3   And you shall say to them, "This is the offering
                made by fire which you shall offer to the Lord:
                two male lambs in their first year without blemish,
                day by day, as a regular burnt offering.
           :4   The one lamb you shall offer in the morning, the
                other lamb you shall offer in the evening,
           :5   and one-tenth of an ephah of fine flour as a grain
                offering mixed with one-fourth of a hin of pressed
                oil.
           :6   It is a regular burnt offering which was ordained
                at Mount Sinai for a sweet aroma, an offering made
                by fire to the Lord.
           :7   And its drink offering shall be one-fourth of a hin
                for each lamb; in a holy place you shall pour out
                the drink to the Lord as an offering.
           :8   The other lamb you shall offer in the evening; as
                the morning grain offering and its drink offering,
                you shall offer it as an offering made by fire, a
                sweet aroma to the Lord.

                [NB: Verse 3 tells us the lambs were male lambs.]


    Lev 6:20 advises the measurements of grain and oil stated in
    Num 28:5 are actually daily amounts. Half to be offered in the
    morning and half later in the day.

    Lev   6:20  This is the offering of Aaron and his sons,
                which they shall offer to the LORD, beginning
                on the day when he is anointed: one-tenth
                of an ephah of fine flour as a daily grain
                offering, half of it in the morning and half
                of it at night.

PRINCE'S BURNT OFFERING


The requirement for a Prince offering is mentioned in Ezek 46:13-15.

    Ezek  46:13  You shall daily make a burnt offering to the Lord
                 of a lamb of the first year without blemish; you
                 shall prepare it every morning.
            :14  And you shall prepare a grain offering with it
                 every morning, a sixth of an ephah, and a third
                 of a hin of oil to  moisten the fine flour.
                 The grain offering is a perpetual ordinance,
                 to be made regularly to the Lord.
            :15  Thus they shall prepare the lamb, the grain
                 offering, and the oil, as a regular burnt
                 offering every morning. 


This morning offering requirement is confirmed in 2Kings 16:15.

    2King 16:15  ... burn the morning burnt offering, the evening
                 grain offering, the king's burnt sacrifice, and
                 his grain offering, with the burnt offering of all
                 the people of the land, their grain offering, and
                 their drink offerings; ...

                 [NB: Even though this verse is talking about
                      offerings to be made on a pagan altar,
                      the offerings themselves were those
                      required under the Old Covenant. ]

TIMING INFORMATION


In Numbers 28:4 and 28:8 translators have provided the word
'evening'. However, in the Hebrew this actually says "between
the evenings".


In Ezekiel 46:13-15 translators have provided the wording 'every
morning'. Nevertheless, in the Hebrew this actually says "in
morning in morning".

The repetition of 'in morning' may be indicating more information
in respect to the timing of the offering. As 'morning means 'break
forth', it may be saying 'in break forth in morning'. 



* WEEKLY SABBATH * (Additional)


 
Timing                   Ram   Lambs       Grain             Drink
                                         (Fine flour
                                        & Pressed Oil)
Numbers 28:9-10
People's burnt offering

'in morning'                    1    1/10 ephah  +  1/8 hin  1/4 hin

'between the evenings'          1    1/10 ephah  +  1/8 hin  1/4 hin
                           -         ----------------------  -------
                                2    2/10 ephah  +  1/4 hin  1/2 hin

Ezekiel 46:4-5
Prince's burnt offering

'in morning in morning'         6     open hand of grain;
                                      hin oil to an ephah

                           1          1 ephah


                         ---  ---
                           1    8

PEOPLE'S BURNT OFFERING


    Num  28:9   And on the Sabbath day two lambs in their first
                year, without blemish, and two-tenths of an ephah
                of fine flour as a grain offering, mixed with oil,
                with its drink offering
           :10  this is the burnt offering for every Sabbath,
                besides the regular burnt offering with its drink
                offering.

               NB: 1) The end of verse 10 informs us this offering
                      was in addition to the regular daily offering.
                   2) The above verses do not define the exact
                      quantities of oil and drink offerings, so the
                      normal daily measurements have been depicted.

PRINCE'S BURNT OFFERING


    Ezek 46:4   The burnt offering that the prince offers to the
                Lord on the Sabbath day shall be six lambs without
                blemish, and a ram without blemish;
           :5   and the grain offering shall be one ephah for a ram,
                and the grain offering for the lambs, as much as he
                wants to give, as well as a hin of oil with every
                ephah. 

                NB: 1) These verses simply state the quantities on
                       a Sabbath day. They do NOT say that these are
                       in addition to the regular daily offering.
                    2) In verse 5 the notion "as much as he wants
                       to give", literally means "a present an open
                       hand".
                       This could be indicating a scooped handful
                       of grain.



* APPOINTED NEW MOONS *


In attempting to understand the quantities of various animals
sacrificed it is essential to grasp what the New Moon (so called
'monthly offerings') actually represent.

In the Old Testament the same Hebrew word is sometimes translated
'months' and sometimes translated 'New Moons'. 
If the text made sense using the translation 'months' then this
was applied, otherwise the rendering 'New Moons' was provided.

This resulted in translations rendering the word 'months' when
'New Moons' were actually being discussed.

Numbers 28:11-15 is such an example. What is being discussed here
is not 'months', but religious occasions being identified as
'New Moons'.

"New Moons" are not literal 'new moons'. They are ceremonial 'New
Moons'.

The topic of 'New Moons' is more fully discussed on the page; 

NEW MOON - Chodesh - Explained!


In accordance with the teaching of the above webpage New Moons
will NOT be viewed as the first days of each literal month.
They will be viewed as days which represent transitions in
the figurative Moon. Changes to the symbolic 'Moon' - ie
major changes/renewals to the Old Covenant congregation.
These memorial days being associated with major points of
inflection through time (both past and future).

With reference to observance days the seven annual rest days, are
categorised as follows:


     first day of Unleavened Bread         -  New Moon
     seventh day of Unleavened Bread       -  New Moon
     Feast of Weeks - ie Pentecost         -  New Moon
     Day of Trumpets                       -  New Moon
     Day of Atonement                      -  Sabbath (type of)
     first day of Tabernacles              -  New Moon
     Last Day - following Tabernacles      -  New Moon



***  There exists only six annual "New Moons".  ***
 Timing                    Bulls  Ram  Lambs          Grain              Drink
                                                (Fine flour & P/Oil)

Numbers 28:11-15
People's burnt offering

'head of'                   2                 3/10 ephah  +  3/8 hin    1/2 hin
                                  1           2/10 ephah  +  2/8 hin    1/3 hin
                                        7     1/10 ephah  +  1/8 hin    1/4 hin
Ezekiel 46:4-5
Prince's burnt offering

morning(?)                  1                 1 ephah     +    1 hin
                                  1           1 ephah     +    1 hin
                                        6     open hand of grain;
                                              hin oil to an ephah

                          ---   ---   ---
                            3     2    13

PEOPLE'S BURNT OFFERING


    Num  28:11  At the beginnings of your months(New Moons) you
                shall present a burnt offering to the Lord: two
                young bulls, one ram, and seven lambs in their
                first year, without blemish;
           :12  three-tenths of an ephah of fine flour as a grain
                offering, mixed with oil, for each bull; two-tenths
                of an ephah of fine flour as a grain offering, mixed
                with oil, for the one ram;
           :13  and one-tenth of an ephah of fine flour, mixed with
                oil, as a grain offering for each lamb, as a burnt
                offering of sweet aroma, an offering made by fire
                to the Lord.
           :14  Their drink offering shall be half a hin of wine for
                a bull, one-third of a hin for a ram, and one-fourth
                of a hin for a lamb; this is the burnt offering for
                each month (New Moon) throughout the months (New
                Moons) of the year.
           :15  Also one kid of the goats as a sin offering to the
                Lord shall be offered, besides the regular burnt
                offering and its drink offering.

                NB: 1) These offerings were presented in the
                       'head of' the days; ie at the very
                       beginning of the 24 hour day.
                       (The same expression is found in Num
                       10:10.)
                    2) The Standard ratio of oil to grain has
                       been applied.

PRINCE'S BURNT OFFERING


    Ezek 46:6  On the day of the New Moon it shall be a young bull
               without blemish, six lambs, and a ram; they shall be
               without blemish.
           :7  He shall prepare a grain offering of an ephah for
               a bull, an ephah for a ram, as much as he wants
               to give for the lambs, and a hin of oil with every
               ephah.



* ANNUAL ASSEMBLY OCCASIONS *

('New Moons' included)


BULLS
              Num 28/29   New Moon    Prince    N/M Prince  Sabbath
                            Extra     Ezek 45     Extra     Prince
                                                 Ezek 46    Ezek 46

Passover 14th                            1

U/L Bread 1        2           2         7         1
U/L Bread 2        2                     7
U/L Bread 3        2                     7
U/L Bread 4        2                     7
U/L Bread 5        2                     7
U/L Bread 6        2                     7
U/L Bread 7        2           2         7         1

Pentecost          2           2                   1

Trumpets           1           2                   1
Atonement          1                       
Tabernacles 1     13           2         7         1
Tabernacles 2     12                     7
Tabernacles 3     11                     7
Tabernacles 4     10                     7
Tabernacles 5      9                     7
Tabernacles 6      8                     7
Tabernacles 7      7                     7         1
Last Day           1           2

                 ---         ---       ---       ---        ---
Total             89          12       101         6

Grand Total 208 + Atonement (Lev 16:3 1 bull)/Passover = 209
(Exod 29:35-37 annual?)


RAMS
              Num 28/29   New Moon    Prince    N/M Prince  Sabbath
                            Extra     Ezek 45     Extra     Prince
                                                 Ezek 46    Ezek 46

Passover 14th                              

U/L Bread 1        1           1         7         1
U/L Bread 2        1                     7
U/L Bread 3        1                     7
U/L Bread 4        1                     7
U/L Bread 5        1                     7
U/L Bread 6        1                     7
U/L Bread 7        1           1         7         1

Pentecost          1           1                   1

Trumpets           1           1                   1
Atonement          1                       		      1
Tabernacles 1      2           1         7         1
Tabernacles 2      2                     7
Tabernacles 3      2                     7
Tabernacles 4      2                     7
Tabernacles 5      2                     7
Tabernacles 6      2                     7
Tabernacles 7      2                     7         1
Last Day           1           1

                 ---         ---       ---       ---        ---
Total             25           6        98         6          1

Grand Total 138 + 1 ram (Lev 16:3) = 139



LAMBS
              Num 28/29   New Moon     Prince   N/M Prince  Sabbath
                            Extra      Ezek 45    Extra     Prince
                                                 Ezek 46    Ezek 46

Passover 14th                              

U/L Bread 1        7           7                     6
U/L Bread 2        7                       
U/L Bread 3        7                       
U/L Bread 4        7                       
U/L Bread 5        7                      
U/L Bread 6        7                      
U/L Bread 7        7           7                     6

Pentecost          7           7                     6

Trumpets           7           7                     6
Atonement          7                       		        6
Tabernacles 1     14           7                     6
Tabernacles 2     14                      
Tabernacles 3     14                      
Tabernacles 4     14                      
Tabernacles 5     14                      
Tabernacles 6     14                      
Tabernacles 7     14                                 6
Last Day           7           7

                 ---         ---       ---       ---        ---
Total            175          42                   36         6

Grand Total 259

[ NB: The Passover lamb, set aside on the 10th of the first month,
      is not included in the count as it was not offered at the
      Temple. Rather the lamb was killed amidst private residences
      and the shed blood was immediately placed on doorposts and
      lintels. The meat was then roasted in the homes of the people
      and consumed before midnight. ]


GOATS
              Num 28/29   New Moon  N/M Prince   N/M Prince  Sabbath
                            Extra     Ezek 45      Extra     Prince
                                                  Ezek 46    Ezek 46

Passover 14th                              

U/L Bread 1        1           1         1          
U/L Bread 2        1                     1
U/L Bread 3        1                     1
U/L Bread 4        1                     1
U/L Bread 5        1                     1
U/L Bread 6        1                     1
U/L Bread 7        1           1         1          

Pentecost          1           1                     

Trumpets           1           1                     
Atonement          1                       
Tabernacles 1      1           1         1          
Tabernacles 2      1                     1
Tabernacles 3      1                     1
Tabernacles 4      1                     1
Tabernacles 5      1                     1
Tabernacles 6      1                     1
Tabernacles 7      1                     1          
Last Day           1           1

                 ---         ---       ---        ---        ---
Total             18           6        14                    

Grand Total 38



Notes: 1)  At the time the ark of the covenant was brought to
           Jerusalem they offered seven bulls and seven rams
           (1Chr 15:26), the numbers of animals the Prince had
           to offer during the Feast of Unleavened Bread and
           the Feast of Tabernacles.





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