Exodus of Israel from Egypt

The Bible's Exodus Journey!
Goshen to Mt Sinai

Map of Exodus journey
- Egypt to Mt Sinai
What does the Bible Document?
What does the Bible Imply?
Many interesting views have been proposed, but it is important to pay close attention to what Scripture actually states and what it also subtly implies. A critical aspect, which many overlook, is the initial request of Pharaoh that he allow the children of Israel to go three days into the wilderness. As the God of the Hebrews had met with them and was requiring a sacrificial feast to Him.


For a biblically honest discussion, the meaning of these three verses
should be initially highlighted and discussed. 

    Exod   3:18  ... 'The Lord God of the Hebrews has met with us;
                 and now, please, let us go three days journey into
                 the wilderness, that we may sacrifice to the Lord
                 our God.' 

           5:1   Afterward Moses and Aaron went in and told Pharaoh,
                 "Thus says the Lord God of Israel: 'Let My people go,
                 that they may hold a feast to Me in the wilderness.'"

           5:3   "The God of the Hebrews has met with us. Please,
                 let us go three days journey into the desert and
                 sacrifice to the Lord our God, lest He fall upon us
                 with pestilence or with the sword."

After travelling three days the wilderness they were offer sacrifice
to the Lord their God.

God usually has significant events timed to occur in keeping with the
observance days and feasts listed in Leviticus chapter 23.

We are all aware that the children of Israel started to depart Egypt
at the time of Passover and the seven day Feast of Unleavened Bread. 

So upon what day was the aforementioned sacrificial offering in the
wilderness intended to fall?

Numbers chapter 33 gives us a brief outline of the Exodus journey.
It informs us the children of Israel started to depart Rameses on the
15th day of the first month.

They left in the morning while the Egyptians were burying their dead.

    Num   33:3   They departed from Rameses in the first month,
                 on the fifteenth day of the first month; on the
                 day after the Passover the children of Israel
                 went out with boldness in the sight of all the
            :4   For the Egyptians were burying all their firstborn,
                 whom the Lord had killed among them. ...

We are then told where they camped thereafter.

    Num   33:5   Then the children of Israel moved from Rameses
                 and camped at Succoth.
            :6   They departed from Succoth and camped at Etham,
                 which is on the edge of the wilderness.
            :7   They moved from Etham and turned back to Pi
                 Hahiroth, which is east of Baal Zephon; and
                 they camped near Migdol.
            :8   They departed from before Hahiroth and passed
                 through the midst of the sea into the wilderness,
                 went three days journey in the Wilderness of
                 Etham, and camped at Marah.

So they camped at Succoth, then Etham, then back tracked and camped
near Migdol.

They then crossed the Red Sea and journeyed the three days into the
wilderness of Etham.

Hence, the minimum we have is a two day journey through the populated
land of Egypt to the edge of the wilderness. Then a one day journey
which initially backtracks and then proceeds to the Red Sea coastline.
This is then immediately followed by a Red Sea crossing at night.

At daylight we have the start of the requested three day journey into
the wilderness.

So starting with the 15th day of the first month we have a total of
6 days to reach the site where they were to offer sacrifices to God.

In their first week the Israelites were travelling every single day.
We know this because they only ate unleavened bread 15th to 21st.

[ NB: Their actual journey had started on the 14th day (on which
      they travelled from Goshen to Rameses). They then travelled
      another six days and ended the initial stage of their
      journeying on the 20th day.
      It took a while for bread to naturally leaven, so while
      they were not travelling on the 21st day, they were still
      without leavened bread until the morning of the 22nd day. ]

Their initial journey can be illustrated as follows.


   Day of     Location               7 Days Spent     7 Days Eating
   Month      at night                Travelling        Unleavened

  |--------|  Goshen                   |-------|
  |                                    |       |
  |  14th                              |   1   |
  |                                    |       |
  |--------|  Rameses                  |-------|        |-------|
  |                                    |       |        |       |
  |  15th                              |   2   |        |   1   |
  |                                    |       |        |       |
  |--------|  Succoth                  |-------|        |-------|
  |                                    |       |        |       |
  |  16th                              |   3   |        |   2   |
  |                                    |       |        |       |
  |--------|  Etham                    |-------|        |-------|
  |                                    |       |        |       |
  |  17th                              |   4   |        |   3   |
  |                                    |       |        |       |
  |--------|  Red Sea crossing         |-------|        |-------|
  |                                    |       |        |       |
  |  18th                              |   5   |        |   4   |
  |                                    |       |        |       |
  |--------|  Wilderness end day 1     |-------|        |-------|
  |                                    |       |        |       |
  |  19th                              |   6   |        |   5   |
  |                                    |       |        |       |
  |--------|  Wilderness end day 2     |-------|        |-------|
  |                                    |       |        |       |
  |  20th                              |   7   |        |   6   |
  |                                    |       |        |       |
  |--------|  Marah                    |-------|        |-------|
  |                                                     |       |
  |  21st                                               |   7   |
  |                                                     |       |
  |--------|  still at Marah                            |-------|

When the Old Covenant requirements were fully detailed the 21st day,
the seventh day of the Feast of Unleavened Bread, was to be regularly
observed as a sacred assembly. 

    Lev   23:6   And on the fifteenth day of the same month is the
                 Feast of Unleavened Bread to the Lord; seven days
                 you must eat unleavened bread. 
            :8   ... The seventh day shall be a holy convocation;
                 you shall do no customary work on it.

    Deut  16:8   Six days you shall eat unleavened bread, and on
                 the seventh day there shall be a sacred assembly
                 to the Lord your God. You shall do no work on it.

So after crossing the Red Sea the children of Israel went three days
into the wilderness and then on the fourth day had a feast and offered
sacrifices to God.

So at the location, which was 3 days journey into the wilderness, they
found themselves at a place called Marah. 

    Num   33:8   They departed ... and passed through the midst of
                 the sea into the wilderness, went three days journey
                 in the Wilderness of Etham, and camped at Marah.

At Marah bitter waters were healed by casting in a tree.

Also at Marah God made a established a statute and an ordinance.
God tested them there.

    [NB: Refer Josh 5:2. At Gilgal they were circumcised the
         second time.
         Therefore, there had been a first time when the children
         of Israel had been circumcised. ]


From Marah they travelled to Elim and then camped near the Red Sea.

    Num   33:9   They moved from Marah and came to Elim. At Elim
                 were twelve springs of water and seventy palm trees;
                 so they camped there.
            :10  They moved from Elim and camped by the Red Sea.

How are we to consider this subsequent reference to the Red Sea?

It really depends on where one considers Mt Sinai is located.

If one places weight upon the following verse then one would see the need
for the children of Israel to be travelling toward Arabia.

    Gal   4:25  for this Hagar is Mount Sinai in Arabia, ...

With such a viewpoint a reference to camping near the Red Sea would
indicate that the children of Israel had crossed the Sinai Peninsula!

The following is the remaining portion of the journey to Mt Sinai.

    Num  33:11  They moved from the Red Sea and camped in the
                Wilderness of Sin.
           :12  They journeyed from the Wilderness of Sin and
                camped at Dophkah.
           :13  They departed from Dophkah and camped at Alush.
           :14  They moved from Alush and camped at Rephidim,
                where there was no water for the people to drink.
           :15  They departed from Rephidim and camped in the
                Wilderness of Sinai.

Something that needs to be built into the final arrangement is the
reference to the location of the Wilderness of Sin. It was half way
between Elim and Sinai.

    Exod 16:1   And they journeyed from Elim, and all the
                congregation of the children of Israel came
                to the Wilderness of Sin, which is between
                Elim and Sinai, ... 

                [NB: 1) They arrived at Elim after leaving Marah.
                     2) Naturally we do not expect many named
                        places during any wandering through
                        uninhabited wilderness. ]

We should also notice that the Split Rock is located in Horeb, near
Mt Sinai.

    Exod 17:6   Behold, I will stand before you there on the
                rock in Horeb; and you shall strike the rock,
                and water will come out of it, that the people
                may drink.

The following outlines their journey after they crossed the Red Sea, in
the first month, to when they reached Mt Sinai in the third month. 


   LOCATION                 KEY ASPECTS           DATE

   Red Sea                  cross overnight       after 17th daylight

   Marah                    bitter waters         arrive 20th 1st month
    (Wilderness             tree cast in          (Feast 21st)
     of Shur)               a statute
                            an ordinance

   Elim                     12 wells              -
                            70 palm trees

   by the Red Sea           -                     -

   Wilderness of Sin        Manna                 15th 2nd month
    (between Elim           Quail
     and Sinai)             Sabbath

   Dophkah                  -                     -

   Alush                    -                     -

   Rephidim                 no water              -
    (In Horeb)              Split Rock

   Wilderness of Sinai      10 Commandments       Feast of Weeks
                                                  (3rd month)


The information provided seems to suggest an exodus journey along the lines
of what is shown below.

   -  Etham on the edge of the wilderness.

   -  Backtracking after Etham (Num 33:7 and Exod 14:2-3),
      indicating to Pharaoh that the wilderness had 'closed in'
      the children of Israel.

   -  Marah, 3 days directly into the wilderness.

   -  Mt Sinai in Arabia.

   -  Wilderness of Sin, half way between Elim and Mt Sinai.

   -  Rephidim very close to Mt Sinai.

Map of Exodus journey
- Land of Goshen, Rameses, Succoth, Elath, Migdol, Marah, Elim, Wilderness of Sin,
Dophkah, Alush, Rephidim, Mt Sinai.


1) The exact location of many of these cities and places is unknown
   or greatly disputed. The locations shown are being advanced as
   indicative. (The purpose is to give the reader a good overview
   of their journey.)

2) The dates shown are those stated or implied by Scripture.
   These dates are being advanced as completely accurate.

3) When Israel crossed over the Red Sea at night they crossed over
   the border of Egypt. They left the territory of Egypt.
   The Deut 16:1 text, "the Lord your God brought you out of Egypt
   by night" refers to the crossing of the Red Sea! 


Exodus 16:1 advises that the children of Israel arrived at the Wilderness
of Sin on the 15th day of the second month.

    Exod 16:1   And they took their journey from Elim, and all
                the congregation of the children of Israel came
                unto the Wilderness of Sin, ... on the fifteenth
                day of the second month after their departing
                out of the land of Egypt.

At this stage of their journey the children of Israel were relatively
close to Mt Sinai.

In order to feed the people and to reintroduce the weekly Sabbath God
provided quail and manna. Indicating they were to collect twice as much
manna the sixth day and not look for it on the seventh day.


There was a lack of water at Rephidim, which set the scene for the
Split Rock event.

    Exod 17:6    Behold, I will stand before you there on the rock in
                 Horeb; and you shall strike the rock, and water will
                 come out of it, that the people may drink.

Obviously a substantial rock was involved. A sizable quantity of water would have been needed. Ideally this released water would have formed a large easily accessible pool. It has to be remembered that the children of Israel represented a sizable number of people. Split Rock'
Also, at this location the people of Amalek fought with Israel. (The Amalek nation were descendants from Timna, the concubine of Esau's son Eliphaz. Gen 36:12.) Exod 17:13 So Joshua defeated Amalek and his people with the edge of the sword. :14 Then the Lord said to Moses, "Write this for a memorial in the book and recount it in the hearing of Joshua, that I will utterly blot out the remembrance of Amalek from under heaven."

ARRIVAL AT SINAI - 'third month'

The arrival of the children of Israel at Sinai.

    Exod 19:1   In the third month after the children of Israel
                had gone out of the land of Egypt, on the same day,
                they came to the Wilderness of Sinai.
           :2   For they had departed from Rephidim, had come to the
                Wilderness of Sinai, and camped in the wilderness.
                So Israel camped there before the mountain.

The third month brings us to another observance day requirement.

Specifically, 'the Feast of Weeks' mentioned in Leviticus 23:15-21.
This was a feast which was observed after the counting of seven
Sabbaths. It was observed early in the third month.

In Exodus 19:1 above, the comment "on the same day" has confused many.
It has caused much uncertainty over what this expression was actually

Several perspectives are possible;

3rd day of the Month

A simple explanation would be to say that "on the same day", simply
meant on the third day (picking up the number '3' from the number of
the month). Such a timing would allow God to come down on Mt Sinai,
three days later (Exod 19:10-11), on the 6th day. On what could be
the day of the 'Feast of Weeks'.

Unfortunately, expressions like "on the same day" tend to indicate
timings of importance. Suggesting the day of arrival itself needs to
be in correlation with the timing of some other significant event.
The day of arrival has to be significant.

15th day of the Month

It has been proposed that the previously mentioned date of the 15th
could be what is being indicated. The 15th is mentioned in the first
month (being the date of departure from Rameses) and it is again
mentioned in the second month (being the date of their arrival at the
wilderness of Sin).

However, such a date would be too late in the third month to enable
any connection to the Feast of Weeks. 

1st day of the Month

A more unusual explanation is sometimes advanced. The Hebrew for the
word translated 'month' may actually be referring to 'New Moon'.
Therefore, this would be advising they arrived at Sinai at the time
of the third 'New Moon'. So for those following the 'common' Jewish
perspective this view would be suggesting they arrived on the first
day of the third month.

On the Feast of Weeks

This also picks up on the notion that the word 'month' in this verse
should be translated 'New Moon'.
However, it understands 'New Moon' not to be the literal new moon,
but rather the third annual commanded partial sabbath. That is to say
the verse is saying the children of Israel arrived on the day of the
'Feast of Weeks' itself.

     [NB: As the day of the Feast of Weeks is a commanded rest day,
          it is likely the distance travelled to Sinai on that day
          was relatively short. A distance within the scope of a
          Sabbath's day journey. It has already been identified
          that Rephidim and Mt Sinai were very close to each other.]


The rotation of the weekly Sabbath can be determined from Exodus chapter

     [NB: They travelled to the 'Wilderness of Sin' on the 15th day.
          After the passing of the 15th day and  another 5 days, the
          Sabbath fell on the 21st. (Normally 6 days of manna, but
          on this occasion they travelled on the first day before
          manna was introduced.) ]

So using a fixed 30 day month and overlaying a template of what became
the Old Covenant commanded observances, we have the following.


(First to Third Month)

  DAY   TIMING/ACTIVITY                      EVENT

        After 13th daylight                - Lamb Passover meal

  14th  Day travelled to Rameses           - Passover day
                                           - Remove Leaven
        After 14th daylight                - Pharaoh tells Israel
                                             to leave
                                           - a Great Celebration
                                             (became the formal
                                             'Passover' service.)

  15th  Day travelled Rameses to Succoth   - 1st day of U/L Bread

  16th  Day travelled Succoth to Etham     - Weekly Sabbath

  17th  Day travelled Etham to near Migdol - 1st of 50 days counting
                                             to Feast of Weeks

        Night - crossed the Red Sea        - 'Watch' observance

  21st  Sacrifices at Marah                - 7th day of U/L Bread

  23td                                     - Weekly Sabbath
  30th                                     - Weekly Sabbath

   7th                                     - Weekly Sabbath
  14th                                     - Weekly Sabbath

  15th  Day travelled to Wilderness of Sin 

  21st                                     - Weekly Sabbath
  28th                                     - Weekly Sabbath

   5th                                     - Weekly Sabbath

   6th  Arrive at Mt Sinai                 - Feast of Weeks
                                             50th day of count

Notice, God treated Israel as an 'ox in the ditch'. Despite the 15th and
16th being rest days, He still removed Israel from Egypt.

The lamb Passover and the formal Passover were separate events!


Many details have to be fully discussed before one can fully grasp the
various issues that exist in respect to Israel's exodus journey.


At the time of the Exodus the children of Israel lived in the land of
Goshen, which was located in the territory of Rameses.

    Exod  9:26  Only in the land of Goshen, where the children
                of Israel were, there was no hail.

    Gen  47:11  And Joseph situated his father and his brothers,
                and gave them a possession in the land of Egypt,
                in the best of the land, in the land of Rameses,
                as Pharaoh had commanded.

We all know the account of Exodus chapter 12 and how a chosen lamb was
slaughtered, its blood placed around the doorway and the meat of the
lamb fully consumed that night, Exod 12:10. This took place in their
homes in the land of Goshen.

For this occasion they were to be dressed for travel. 

    Exod 12:11  And thus you shall eat it: with a belt on
                your waist, your sandals on your feet, and
                your staff in your hand. 

This observance took place on the first half of the night. The night
before the 14th daylight.

After the lamb Passover observance, which ended at midnight, they
slept and arose the next morning ready for travel. They burnt the
edible remains of the lamb. Then the children of Israel departed
from their homes in Goshen and journeyed to the city of Rameses
where they camped that night outside the city.

An important point is that while Pharaoh called for Moses at night
(after the death of the Egyptian firstborn) Moses did not immediately
travel and visit Pharaoh.

    Exod 12:31  Then he called for Moses and Aaron by night, ...

                *** Note what had previously been agreed. ***

    Exod 10:28  Then Pharaoh said to him, "Get away from me!
                Take heed to yourself and see my face no more!
                For in the day you see my face you shall die!"
           :29  So Moses said, "You have spoken well. I will
                never see your face again."

Moses did not go personally to Pharaoh after Pharaoh called for him.
Rather, following the tenth plague Moses led all the children of Israel
to a camp site outside the city of Rameses.


It was while they were camped near the city of Rameses, at sunset,
that formal notification came from Pharaoh.

    Exod 12:31  ... "Rise, go out from among my people, both
                you and the children of Israel. And go, serve
                the Lord as you have said.
           :32  Also take your flocks and your herds, as you
                have said, and be gone; and bless me also."

We know this is what happened because God established a formal
gathering and celebration which was observed at sunset following
the daylight of the 14th day. This formal gathering was also named

    Lev   23:4   These are the feasts of the LORD, holy convocations
                 which you shall proclaim at their appointed times.
            :5   On the fourteenth day of the first month at twilight
                 (between the evenings) is the LORD's Passover.

    Deut  16:2   Therefore you shall sacrifice the Passover
                 to the LORD your God, from the flock and
                 the herd, in the place where the LORD chooses
                 to place His name.
            :6   ... there you shall sacrifice the Passover
                 at twilight (evening), at the going down of
                 the sun, at the time you came out of Egypt.

                 [ NB: This reference to their departure from
                       Egypt at 'twilight' is a reference to the
                       time of day when they would later cross
                       the Red Sea. ]

[ NB: There has been a great deal of confusion present in Judaism
      (and also in Christianity) when it comes to the nature and timing
      of Passover services. Despite many attempts this has never been
      adequately resolved by these faiths and the reason is that they
      have failed to properly study the question of when the biblical
      day ended.
      They have simply thought, "a day ends at 'evening', and as sunset
      is called 'evening', so a day ends at sunset". And even though
      they were often aware there was another time called 'evening'
      they have not given enough consideration as to its timing or
      whether this other 'evening' was the time which actually ended
      the biblical day.
      These webpages discuss these topics more fully.

      When the Biblical Day Ends - Not Sunset


      PASSOVER = Two Passovers, 13th and 14th!  ]


From the city of Rameses the entire journey to the Red Sea took only
three days. During all this time they are travelling within the borders
of Egypt.

  First day   - Rameses city to Succoth,

  Second day  - Succoth to Etham.

  Third day   - Backtrack from Etham, turning back toward Pi Hahiroth.
                Finally camped near Migdol.
                (Where it seems they are trapped against the Red Sea.)

As soon as news comes to Pharaoh that they have turned back Pharaoh
perceives weakness and sends his chariots after them. 

    Exod 14:3   For Pharaoh will say of the children of Israel,
                'They are bewildered by the land; the wilderness
                has closed them in.’
           :7   Also, he took six hundred choice chariots, and
                all the chariots of Egypt with captains over
                every one of them.

There are many proposed exodus routes which place the Red Sea crossing
far from the city of Rameses. Biblically such views appear to be
completely unsupportable.

Such views are often adopted because of some preference for this or that
distant Red Sea crossing point.


God parts the waters and at sunset Israel starts to cross the Red Sea
on dry ground.

The Egyptian chariots follow, but about midnight God starts to trouble the
chasing Egyptians.

    Exod 14:24  Now it came to pass, in the morning watch,
                that the Lord looked down upon the army of
                the Egyptians through the pillar of fire
                and cloud, and He troubled the army of the
           :25  And He took off their chariot wheels, so
                that they drove them with difficulty; and
                the Egyptians said, "Let us flee from the
                face of Israel, for the Lord fights for
                them against the Egyptians."

God then, through Moses, caused the waters to return to their full depth.

    Exod 14:27  And Moses stretched out his hand over the
                sea; and when the morning appeared, the sea
                returned to its full depth, while the Egyptians
                were fleeing into it. So the Lord overthrew the
                Egyptians in the midst of the sea. 

The Red Sea crossing was an important event in the Exodus narrative.
In addition it occurred at a very important timing.

For this reason it was to be commemorated by the children of Israel!

    Exod 12:41  And it came to pass at the end of the four hundred
                and thirty years - on that very same day - it came
                to pass that all the armies of the Lord went out
                from the land of Egypt.
           :42  It is a night of solemn observance to the Lord for
                bringing them out of the land of Egypt. This is that
                night of the Lord, a solemn observance for all the
                children of Israel throughout their generations.

The Hebrew word for 'solemn observance' is . A Hebrew word used
twice in verse 42.

Adding different Hebrew vowels generates several Hebrew words. (Remember
the received Hebrew does not have vowels.) In such cases translators have
to make reasoned guesses as to what word was intended. The only time this
Hebrew form is translated to indicate 'observance' is in verse 42.

H8107  2x   shimmur - from H8104; an observance.

H8104  9x   shamar  - properly, to hedge about (as with thorns),
                             ie guard; generally, to protect, attend to,
H8105  2x   shemer  - from H8104; something preserved, ie the
                             settings (plural only) of wine. 

This is not the normal word for 'observance'.

Now, consider how the NIV has translated this verse.

    Exod 12:41  Because the Lord kept vigil that night to bring
                them out of Egypt, on this night all the Israelites
                are to keep vigil to honour the LORD for the generations
                to come.

                [ NB: Some other translations have also chosen
                      to use the word 'vigil'. ]

This was actually a night of commanded 'vigil'. It was a night of
watching. It was a night for staying awake!

What night was this?

It was the night they left Egypt. The night they crossed the Red Sea!

The night the Egyptian chariots chased after them. A night the children
of Israel feared for their lives.

With the coming of morning light the children of Israel could see the
bodies of the Egyptians on the seashore.

    Exod 14:30  So the Lord saved Israel that day out of the hand
                of the Egyptians, and Israel saw the Egyptians dead
                on the seashore.

Where else in Scripture do we have a night of staying up?

We have an obvious case in Acts 20:7-11 when a young man fell asleep and
as a consequence fell from the third story and died. The whole timing of
this event is confused by the translation (please refer firstdy2.html for
clarification), but it occurs during the night following the daylight of
the last day of the Feast of Unleavened Bread.

We also have a less apparent case when the apostles gathered together
after Christ rose.

Both theses cases occur the night after the 'first of the Sabbaths',
(not 'first of the week'), but these occur on different dates during
the Feast of Unleavened Bread.

This indicates the staying awake at night was not fixed to a certain date.
Rather it was held as a memorial, on the night following the daylight of
the Wave Sheaf offering day.

The Wave Sheaf day itself followed a weekly Sabbath (as is also discussed
in firstdy2.html ).

So if the Red Sea occurs on the night following the 17th daylight then
the prior 16th day was a weekly Sabbath day! 

So combining a 16th weekly Sabbath (of the first month) with a 30 day
fixed length monthly cycle renders the following weekly Sabbath dates:

       23rd and 30th              of first month;
       7th, 14th, 21st and 28th   of second month;
       and the 5th                of third month.

It also means that the Feast of Weeks, which fell on the day after the
weekly Sabbath, fell on the 6th day of the third month.


Biblical scholars have overall failed to make the connection between the
sacrifice (and feast) that God desired and the annual sabbath feast day
of the 7th day of the Feast of Unleavened Bread.

This may be due to a failure to simply realise that the observance days
God later required of the Israelites were very much tied to the unfolding
of the Exodus journey.

Due to this oversight many have placed Marah far from the city of Rameses. 

PROVISION OF MANNA / QUAIL - Wilderness of Sin

Exodus 16:1 also advises us that the children of Israel arrived at the
Wilderness of Sin on the 15th day of the second month. The next morning
manna was provided for the very first time.

    Exod 16:1   And they took their journey from Elim, and all
                the congregation of the children of Israel came
                unto the Wilderness of Sin, ... on the fifteenth
                day of the second month after their departing
                out of the land of Egypt.

    Exod 16:13  So it was that quail came up at evening and covered
                the camp, and in the morning the dew lay all around
                the camp.
           :14  And when the layer of dew lifted, there, on the
                surface of the wilderness, was a small round
                substance, as fine as frost on the ground.
           :15  So when the children of Israel saw it, they said
                to one another, :What is it?" For they did not
                know what it was.
                And Moses said to them, "This is the bread which
                the Lord has given you to eat."

Quail was first provided - provided that evening - and then the next
morning the manna appeared.

    [ NB: This account should not be confused with the later
          occurring narrative found in Num 11:18-20,31-34. ]

When did the Manna Cease?

After the entering the Promised Land manna ceased to be provided.
It ceased on the 16th, after the 15th (the day they first ate of
the produce of that land).

    Josh  5:10  Now the children of Israel camped in Gilgal,
                and kept the Passover on the fourteenth day of
                the month at twilight on the plains of Jericho.
           :11  And they ate of the produce of the land on the
                day after the Passover, unleavened bread and
                parched grain, on the very same day.
           :12  Then the manna ceased on the day after they had
                eaten the produce of the land; and the children
                of Israel no longer had manna, but they ate the
                food of the land of Canaan that year.
                [ NB: This also could have been the 2nd month,
                      if the harvest was delayed that year.
                      In a year where an extra month has to be
                      added, it is not added to the prior year
                      (as some teach) but to the current year.
                      Refer Flood chronology discussion. ]

Scripture says that the children of Israel had eaten bread 40 years.

    Exod 16:35  The Israelites ate manna forty years, until
                they came to a land that was settled; they ate
                manna until they reached the border of Canaan.
                [ NB: As Scripture tends to count inclusively,
                      one has to keep in mind that the portions
                      of a year will be counted as a full year. ]

WEEKLY SABBATH - Wilderness of Sin

We have already identified, in the discussion of the 'Watch' observance
the weekly cycle, the weekly Sabbath cycle.

Let us now look at the indications in the Exodus chapter 16 text.

The text provides the following information.

1) The quail was first provided that evening and the manna was
   provided the next day.

    Exod 16:12  ... 'At twilight you shall eat meat, and in
                the morning you shall be filled with bread.'
           :13  So it was that quail came up at evening and
                covered the camp, and in the morning the dew
                lay all around the camp.
           :14  And when the layer of dew lifted, there, on
                the surface of the wilderness, was a small
                round substance, as fine as frost on the ground.
           :16  ... And Moses said to them, "This is the bread
                which the Lord has given you to eat."

2) They gathered twice as much bread the sixth day.

    Exod 16:22  And so it was, on the sixth day, that they
                gathered twice as much bread, ...
           :23  Then he said to them, "This is what the Lord
                has said: 'Tomorrow is a Sabbath rest, a holy
                Sabbath to the Lord. .... lay up for yourselves
                all that remains, to be kept until morning.’"
           :26  Six days you shall gather it, but on the seventh
                day, the Sabbath, there will be none."

The children of Israel had arrived at the Wilderness of Sin on the
15th day.

     Was the count of six days started with the next day
     (the 16th)? In which case the 22nd would be a weekly


     Was the count of six days started with that day
     (the 15th)? In which case the 21st would be a weekly

The first choice places emphasis on wanting six days of collecting
manna before the Sabbath.

The second choice counts the provision of quail on the that day as
the first day. Thereafter it has five days of manna provision in that
(This view also considers the fact that they travelled that 15th day
as an indication this 15th day was not part of the Sabbath cycle.)

The issue is resolved by the 'Watch' observance. Confirming the second

So Sabbaths during the Exodus to Mt Sinai journey were;

         First month      -    23rd and 30th 
         Second month     -    7th, 14th, 21st and 28th  
         Third month      -    5th 

ARRIVAL AT SINAI - Feast of Weeks

Exodus 19:1 has already been discussed.

The best of the options was that which focused upon the third appointed
New Moon of that year (ie, The Feast of Weeks).

They arrived at the mountain of God on the day of the Feast of Weeks.

The Feast of Weeks always occurs after the 7th Sabbath (after the wave
sheaf day). In this year it fell on the 6th day of the third month.


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