- Biblical  Chronology -
THE  KINGS  OF  ISRAEL






This page discusses the chronology of the kings of Israel and Judah
in three separate sections.

                  1)  The Combined Kingdom            - 130 years
                  2)  The Divided Kingdom             - 260 years
                  3)  The Remaining Judean Kingdom    - 130 years


These periods span a total of 520 years and provides the chronology
of events from the crowning of King Saul and the fall of Judea due
to the army of Nebuchadnezzar.


It is interesting to note that the 260 year duration of the Divided
Kingdom can also be segregated into two periods 130 years.

      Rehoboam to death of Jehoiada (2Chr24:15)       - 130  years
      Death of Jehoiada to fall of House of Israel    - 130  years


So what Scripture is presenting is actually four sequential periods
of 130 years each!


The biblical dating of this website situates the total span of 520
years in the period from 2,890 years to 3,010 years after life is
given to Adam.

However, as Scripture often presents time from the standpoint of time
before the prophesied Great Tribulation the dating system used will
do the same. So we are documenting the period 3,100 to 2,580 years
before the Great Tribulation.


* THE COMBINED KINGDOM *

('BT' = 'Before Tribulation')

Saul reigns 3100 BT 1 - | David king, age 30yrs 41 - | Solomon 1st crowned 78 - (Adonijah incident) | | David too sick, 81 - 4th Solomon, Temple foundation begins, Solomon crowned 2nd time | Solomon's house begins. | David dies full of days 91 - Solomon old enough to reign unaided | | 94 - 4th Solomon, Temple foundation complete. | Solomon's house complete,13yrs. | 3000 BT 101 - 11th Solomon, Temple complete after 20yrs. | | Solomon dies 130 -
* NOTES * - Saul reigned 40 years, Acts 13:21 - David reigned 40 years over all Israel, 2Sam 5:3-4. - Solomon reigned 40 years, 1Kings 11:42 & 2Chr 9:30. - The first year in which Saul reigned over Israel was the year after his coronation. - 1Sam 13:1 Saul was a son of one year when he became king and in the second year he reigned over Israel. (This is a revised rendering.) The counting of these years started with the year in which Saul was anointed, the year God 'called' Saul. Then at Mizpah Samuel declared that Saul had been chosen to be their king. 1Sam 10:17&24. Some rejected the kingship of Saul. 1Sam 10:27. The Ammonites are then defeated under Saul's leadership. 1Sam 11:1-11. Then at Gilgal Saul was crowned king at the time of the renewal of the kingdom. 1Sam 11:14-15. Then there was the wheat harvest (1Sam 12:17), which occurs at the start of the year, and after this we encounter the 1Sam 13:1 verse and the description of Jonathan (Saul's son) attacking a garrison of the Philistines. (NB: A number of modern translations, eg NIV & NASB, have unwisely started to alter the original inspired text of 1Sam 13:1 by adding a presumed age and length of reign.) - David was crowned king over all the tribes of Israel in the year after Saul died. - In the year Saul died, David was crowned king over just the tribe of Judah (2Sam 2:4), while Ishbosheth (Saul's son) became king over the other tribes (2Sam 2:8-9). Ishbosheth reign spanned only 2 years (2Sam 2:10) and it was in the 2nd year of his reign that he was murdered and as a consequence David was crowned king over all the tribes of Israel (2Sam 5:3). - David reigned 6 months over Judah before becoming king over all Israel. - David was king in Hebron over Judah seven years and six months, 2Sam 5:5, 2Sam 2:11 & 1Chr 3:4. - David reigned in Hebron over all Israel seven years, 1Chr 29:26-27, & 1K 2:11. - At the time David started to reign over all Israel he was 30 years old, 2Sam 5:3-4. - Solomon was crowned twice! Refer 1C29:22. - 1st during the reign of David, 1K1:28-48. - 2nd about the time of the death of David, 1C29:28,22-23. - Solomon's temple - The first crowning of Solomon mentioned in 1K1:28-53 was in response to Adonijah (brother of Solomon) having himself crowned. - The second crowning of Solomon is when David passed the throne of God (the throne over Israel) to Solomon, 1C29:23. Note, this was also the time Solomon began to build the foundation. - Solomon began to build the temple foundation in the month Ziv (the second month) of the 4th year after the first crowning of Solomon in the 480th year after the Exodus. 1K6:1 - In the 4th year after the second crowning of Solomon (1C29:22), in the month Ziv, the foundation of the temple was 'laid', ie completed. 1K6:37. Note, this was also the time Solomon began to build upon the foundation, 2C3:2. (2C3:2 is commonly rendered the 2nd day of the 2nd month (the word 'day' being added), but it is probable the Hebrew text is actually stating that it was the 2nd month of the 2nd 4th yr of his reign.) - While Solomon was crowned a second time it appears he may have been still too young to reign unaided. 1 Chron 29:1 and 1Kings 3:7. - David dies 'full of days' using Psalm 90:10 this could be taken to mean 80 years old. At this time it appears Solomon was old enough to reign independently and his 40 years of reign began to be counted. - In the 11th year of the reign of Solomon the temple was completed. It had taken a further 7 years to build the house of God upon the completed foundation. 1K6:37-38. - In total it had taken Solomon 20 years to build the house of God, 1K9:10, 2C8:1. It took 13 years for Solomon to build the king's house, 1K7:1. (It appears Solomon started work on both houses at the same time, fully completing the king's house and the foundation of the house of God after 13 years, in the following 7 years he built the house of God.) - Conflict between Rehoboam and Jeroboam. - Some incident appears to have occurred between Rehoboam and Jeroboam. This being what is described in 2Chr 13:6-7. This occurred when Rehoboam was a 'lad'. [NB: Scripture seems to be indicating that a man reaches full maturity at the age of 30 years. The age when the sons of Levi were permitted to work in the tabernacle of meeting, Num 4:3.] At this time worthless men had sided with Jeroboam and Rehoboam had been too young and inexperienced to withstand them. [Contrast this to the events which later occurred at Shechem when Jeroboam and leaders of the 10 tribes of Israel met with an older Rehoboam (41 yrs old 1K14:21 2C12:13) who was subsequently was prepared to go to war, 1Kings 12:21.] It seems that this earlier conflict had been what caused Solomon to seek the life of Jeroboam. And as a result Jeroboam fled to Egypt where he stayed until Solomon died. - The crowning of Rehoboam takes place at Shechem. Shechem is a place associated with the regular (every 40 yrs) renewal of the covenant.

* THE DIVIDED KINGDOM *



           ** JUDAH **                    ** ISRAEL **

         -     Rehoboam, 41 yrs    2970 BT       1 - 1     Jeroboam (1st Rehoboam)       -
      17 |                                         |                                     |
         -     reign ends                       17 -                                     |
                                                   |                                     |
         -     (18th Jeroboam) Abijam           18 -                                     |
       3 |                                         |                                     | 22
         -     (20th Jeroboam) Asa              20 -                                     |
         |                                         |                                     |
         |        10 years peace                   - 22     Nadab                        -
         |                                         |
         -                                      29 -
                                                   |
               15th Covenant 2C15:10            30 -
                                                   |
         -     Asa crowned                      33 -
         |                                         |
         |                                         - 34     Nadab crowned (2nd Asa)      -
         |                                         |                                     | 2
         |     35th yr rule of Asa, War Begins  35 - 35     Baasha   (3rd Asa)           -
         |                                         |        (killed Nadab)               |
         |                                         |                                     | 24
      41 |                                         |                                     |
         |     36th yr rule of Asa              55 -        Baasha builds Ramah          |
         |                                         |                                     |
         |                                         - 58     Elah     (26th Asa)          -
         |                                         |                                     | 2
         |                                         - 59     Zimri(27th Asa) /Omri-Tirzah -  7 days
         |                                         |        (killed Elah)                |
         |                                         |        (died by suicide)            |
         |                                         |                                     |
         |                                         - 63     Omri     (31st Asa?)         |
         |                                         |                                     | 12
         |                                         - 64     Omri-Samaria                 |
         |                                         |                                     |
   -     |     Jehoshaphat                      70 - 70     Ahab     (38th Asa)          -     -
   |     |                                         |                                           |
   |     |     39 yr rule of Asa, diseased feet 71 -                                           |
   |     |                                         |                                           |
   |     -     (4th Ahab)  Jehoshaphat s/kg     73 -                                           | 22
   |                                               |                                           |
   |                                               - 86     1st victory over Syria             |
   |                                               |                                           |
   |                                               - 87     2nd victory over Syria             |
25 |                                               |                                           |
   |                                               - 88     start of 3yrs peace Syria          |
   |                                               |                                           |
   |            Jehoram                            - 89     Ahaziah  (17th Jehoshaphat)  -     |
   |            (wife, Athaliah, daughter of Ahab  |                                     | 2   |
   |                   granddaughter of Omri )     - 90     Jehoram,Joram  (18th Jeh.)   -     |
   |                                               |                       (2nd Jehoram) |     |
   |                                               - 91     Ahab dies in battle, Syria   |     -
   |                                               |                                     |
   |                                               - 92     Jehrm,Jehos,Edom; Elisha     |
   |                                               |                                     |
   -     -    (5th Jehoram-Israel)  s/king      94 -                                     |
         |                                         |                                     | 12
       8 |    (11th Jehoram-I) Ahaziah(42+59)  100 -                                     |
         |                                         |                                     |
         -    (12th Jehoram-I) Ahaziah s/k     101 - 101    Jehu  (implied 1st Athaliah) -
         |                     Athaliah            |        (kills Jehoram)              |
       6 |                                         |                                     |
         -    reign ends                       106 -                                     |
                                                   |                                     | 28
         -    (7th Jehu)       Jehoash,Joash   107 -                                     |
         |                                         |                                     |
         |                                         - 128    reign ends                   -
         |                                         |
         |    (Jehoiada alive at least to 23rd)    - 129    Jehoahaz  (23rd Joash)       -
         |                                         |        (1st of Jehu)                |
         |                                         |                                     |
      40 |    Jehoiada dies (son of 130 yrs)   130 -                                     |
         |                                         |                                     |
         |                                         - 143    Jehoash,Joash (37th Joash)   | 17
         |                                         |        (2nd of Jehu)                |
         |                                         |                                     |
         |                                         - 145    Jehoash s/k                  -
         |                                         |                                     |
         -    (2nd Joash)      Amaziah         146 -                                     | 16
         |                                         |                                     |
      29 |    (lived +15yrs past Jehoash 2K14:17)  - 160    Jeroboam  (15th Amaziah)     -
         |                                         |        (3rd of Jehu)                |
         |                                         |                                     |
         -    Azariah,Uzziah                   174 -                                     |
         |                                         |                                     |
         |                                         |                                     | 41
         |    Azariah crowned 27th Jeroboam    186 -                                     |
         |                                         |                                     |
         |                                         - 200    reign ends                   -
      52 |                                         |                                     | (GAP 11)
         |                                         - 211    Zechariah (38th Azariah)     -
         |                                         |        (4th of Jehu)                |
         |                                         |                                     | .5
         |                                         - 212    Shallum   (39th Azariah)     -
         |                                         |        Menahem   (39th Azariah)     | 10
         |                                         |                                     | (GAP 2)
         |                                         - 223    Pekahiah  (50th Azariah)     -
         |                                         |                                     | 2
         |                                         - 224    reign ends                   -
         |                                         |
         -    reign ends                       225 - 225    Pekah     (52nd Azariah)     -
                                                   |                                     |
         -    (2nd Pekah)      Jotham          226 -                                     |
      16 |                                         |                                     |
         |                                         |                                     | 20
    -    |                     Ahaz            240 -                                     |
    |    |                                         |                                     |
    |    -    (17th Pekah)     Ahaz s/k        241 -                                     |
    |                                              |                                     |
    |                                              - 244     Tiglath Pileser takes land  -
    |                                              |
 16 |                                              - 245     Hoshea (20th Jotham)        -    -
    |                                              |                                     |    |
    |                                              - 252     Hoshea (12th Ahaz)          -    |
    |                                              |                                     |    |
    |         (3rd Hosea)      Hezekiah        254 -                                     |    |
    |                                              |                                     | 9  | 65
    -    -                     Hezekiah s/k    255 -                                     |    | full
         |                                         |                                     |    | yrs
       6 |                                         - 258     Siege of Samaria(4th Hezk)  |    |
         |                                         |         (Shalmaneser)               |    | Isa
         |                                         |                                     |    | 7:8
         -    (9th Hoshea)H/ISRAEL FALLS2710BT 260 - 260     H/ISRAEL FALLS(6th Hezk.)   -    |
                                                   |                                          |
                                                   |                                          |
                                                   |                                          |
                                                   - +50     H/ISRAEL NOT A PEOPLE 2660 BT    -
                                                             (Esarhaddon / Osnapper)

* NOTES *


- 's/k' = sole king

- Situations encountered - co-reigns
                         - new king too young
                         - major changes in dominion.

- There was war between Rehoboam and Jeroboam all their days,
  1Kings14:30 and 2Chr12:15.

- Reign of Abijah - During the short reign of Abijah a great battle
                    occurs 400,000 of Judah against 800,000 of
                    Israel 2C13:3. God fights for Judah, and Israel
                    is subdued 2C13:15-18. Judah gains cities from
                    Israel 2C13:19.
                    The reign of Abijah is stated to be 3 years, but
                    the text of 2C13:20-21 suggests a longer duration
                    of rulership. (It may have been 3 years until his
                    dominion was increased by the outcome of the
                    battle.)

- Reign of Asa - The problem with the chronology of the rulership of
                 Asa is to fit in the 10 years of peace mentioned in
                 2C14:1. As 1K15:16,32 state there was war between
                 Asa and Baasha all their days and that the reign of
                 Baasha began in the 3rd year of the reign of Asa.
               - The solution requires a delay in the sole reign of
                 Asa (and also Nadab) and this is allowed for by the
                 use of two different Hebrew words 'reign' (Strong's
                 4427) and 'rule' (Strong's 4438).
               - Hebrew words 4427 and 4438
                 Strong's 4427 - 'reign', 'ascend the throne'.
                 The bible appears to utilise 4427 to indicate when
                 a king is the dominant ruling authority.
                 Strong's 4438 - 'rule', 'dominion'.
                 The bible appears to utilise this word in a more
                 generalised manner.
                 a) To indicate a lower level of authority, eg a
                    son crowned while his father is still the
                    dominant authority.
                 b) To indicate the start of a family rulership,
                    so the quoted period refers back to the start
                    of a fathers(grandfathers etc) rulership,
                    eg 2C15:19 - refer below.
                 c) To indicate the start of a king's actual reign,
                    eg 2C16:12 - refer below.
               - The 10 years of peace starting when Asa first
                 becomes a ruler and continues until the arrival
                 of the army of Zerah the Ethiopian. 2Chr 14:9-13.
               - Judah enters into a covenant with God 2C15:10.
                 This follows the defeat of the Ethiopian army as
                 plundered bulls and sheep were offered as sacrifice,
                 2C14:9-15,15:11.
               - 2Chr 15:10 suggests the covenant occurs in the 15th
                 year of the rule of Asa. However, such a date would
                 not agree this being a covenant renewal which was
                 necessary every forty years.
                 2Chr 15:10  So they gathered together at Jerusalem
                             in the third month, in the fifteenth
                             year of the reign of Asa.
                      This verse could be rendered,
                             So they gathered together at Jerusalem
                             in the New Moon, in the third of the
                             year, fifteen, reign of Asa.
                             [NB: 1) 'month' can be rendered 'New
                                      Moon'.
                                  2) the third feast of the year
                                     occurs in the 7th month.
                                  3) 'fifteen' could refer to the
                                     15th day in 7th month (would
                                     be the first day of Feast of
                                     Tabernacles) or simply the
                                     15th covenant occasion.]
               - With a requirement to make a covenant every 40 years,
                 starting with Exodus, the 15th covenant would occur
                 at this time - ie after the passing of 560 years from
                 the first covenant immediately after leaving Egypt.
               - 2Chr15:19 - states that the "35th year of 'rule'
                 of Asa marked the start of war. As Asa and Baasha
                 were at war all their years, the 35th year needs
                 to coincide with the start of the reign of Baasha.
                 So in this chronology the 35th year is actually the
                 35th year of the divided kingdom.
               - 2C16:1-3 - In the 36th year of the 'rule' of Asa
                 Baasha came up against Judah and built Ramah.
                 Following this Baasha is attacked by Syria and loses
                 Israel's storage cities in Naphtali (2C16:4) and
                 from the stones and timber of Ramah the defensive
                 Judean cities of Geba and Mizpah are built. All
                 this indicates it likely occurred near the end of
                 the war between Asa and Baasha, at the end of the
                 reign of Baasha.
               - 2C16:12 - In the 39th year of the 'rule' of Asa he
                 became diseased in his feet. 1K15:23 states this
                 occurred in Asa's old age. So the word 'rule' in this
                 verse refers to the start of Asa's actual reign.

- Jehu promised 4 generations of his sons would sit on the throne.
  2 Kings 10:30.

- Jehoiada lives at least to the 23rd of Jehoash, 2K12:6, a son of
  130 yrs when he died, (ie he was a son of the Levitical priesthood
  under the divided kingdom, he himself did not reach 130 years of
  age) 2C24:15.

- Amaziah dies 15 yrs after Joash 2C25:25 & 1K14:17.

- There is an implied jubilee occurrence during the rulership of
  Jotham. Refer 2Chron 27:5. (Perhaps when he ruled during the
  time his father, Uzziah, was a leper.)

- Earthquake - In the days of Uzziah, Zech 14:5. Mentioned in Amos
               1:1.
               A figurative earthquake may be implied, but the actual
               event indicated is unclear.
               It is possible the event refers to the captivity of
               the tribes East of the Jordan. 1Chron 5:26,6.
               The removal of these 2.5 tribes from the Promised Land;
               the tribes of the Reubenites (firstborn of Leah), the
               Gadites (firstborn of Zilpah - handmaid of Leah) and
               half the tribe of Manasseh (firstborn of Joseph - 
               who was the firstborn of Rachel).

- Isaiah 7:8 predicts that within 65 years Ephraim (ie, house of
  Israel) would 'not be a people'. This prophecy was made while Ahaz
  was king of Judah, Pekah was the king of Israel and Rezin was the
  king of Syria (Isa 7:1). The prophecy was likely made at the end
  of Pekah's reign, because the subsequent loss of all the land of
  Naphtali and the relocation of its people outside the Promised
  Land (2K 15:29) was probably the event which resulted in Pekah
  being murdered (2K 15:30).
  While the prophecy mentioned 65 years, Samaria, the capital of
  the house of Israel, fell to Assyria some 15 years thereafter,
  long before the expiry of the 65 years.
  This indicates that a subsequent Assyrian invasion was responsible
  for relocating the remaining people of the house of Israel out of
  the Promised Land. As the Judean king Manasseh was also later taken
  captive by Assyria (2Chron 33:11) it is likely that the relocating
  of the children of Israel took place when Manasseh was taken
  captive.
  (NB: A symbolic meaning for the 65 years may also be present.
       65 generations of 40 years would indicate a period of 2,600
       yrs.
       While the original 65 years pertained to the House of Israel,
       the prophecy was actually stated to the king of Judah, with
       the implication that if He did not believe Judah would also
       meet a similar fate. In this chronology 2,600 years before the
       prophesied future fall of Jerusalem would roughly correspond
       with when Nebuchadnezzar started to act against Judah. )

- Assyria - Jareb,- apparently a descriptive title, 'wrangler/
                    defender', referring to Tiglath-Pileser and/or
                    later kings
                  - Ephraim's sickness and Judah's wound Hosea 5:13
                    Ephraim's sickness - 2K15:19 and 2K17:3
                    Judah's wound - 2K16:7,8 and 2C28:16-21
                  - obtains the calf of Beth Aven, Hosea 10:6
          - Tiglath-Pileser,- mentioned in time of Menahem 2K15:19
                            - also called Pul, took tribes East of
                              Jordan 1C5:26, 1C5:6
                            - takes captive part of H/Israel in the
                              time of Pekah, all the land of Naphtali
                              2K15:29
                            - mentioned in time of Ahaz 2K16:7,
                              2C28:20
          - Sargon, defeat of Egypt and Ethiopia after 3 yrs Isa 20:1
          - Shalmaneser, made Hosea vassal 2K17:3,
                         in the 4th Hezekiah besieges Samaria 2K18:9
          - Sennacherib, 14th Hezekiah 2K18:13
          - Esarhaddon,  son of Sennacherib 2K19:37, Isa 37:38
                         brought foreigners to H/Israel Ezra 4:2
          - Osnapper,    brought foreigners to Samaria Ezra 4:10


* REFERENCES *

NAME             TIMING                          DURATION                AGE

Rehoboam                                         17 1K14:21 2C12:13      41 1K14:21 2C12:13
Jeroboam                                         22 1K14:20
Abijam           18th Jeroboam 1K15:1 2C13:1      3 1K15:2  2C13:2
Asa              20th Jeroboam 1K15:9            41 1K15:10 2C16:13
Nadab             2nd Asa 1K15:25                 2 1K15:25
Baasha            3rd Asa 1K15:33                24 1K15:33
Elah             26th Asa 1K16:8                  2 1K16:8
Zimri            27th Asa 1K16:15                 7days in Tirzah
                                                    1K16:15
Omri             31st Asa 1K16:23                12 In Tirzah 6
                                                    1K16:23
Ahab             38th Asa 1K16:29                22 1K16:29
Jehoshaphat       4th Ahab 1K22:41               25 1K22:42              35 1K22:42
Ahaziah - Isr    17th Jehoshaphat 1K22:51         2 1K22:51
Jehoram - Isr    18th Jehoshaphat 2K3:1          12 2K3:1
                  2nd Jehoram-Jud 2K1:17
Jehoram - Jud     5th Joram-Isr 2K8:16            8 2K8:17 2C21:5        32 2K8:17 2C21:5
                                                    2C21:20                 2C21:20
Ahaziah - Jud    12th Joram-Isr 2K8:25            1 2K8:26 2C22:2        22 2K8:26
                 11th Joram-Isr 2K9:29                                   42 2C22:2
Athaliah                                          6 2K11:3
Jehu                                             28 2K10:36
Jehoash - Jud     7th Jehu 2K12:1                40 2K12:1 2C24:1         7 2C24:1
                                                                          7th ? 2K12:4
Jehoahaz         23rd Joash-Jud 2K13:1           17 2K13:1
Joash - Isr      37th Joash-Jud 2K13:10          16 2K13:10
Amaziah           2nd Joash-Isr 2K14:1           29 2K14:2 2C25:1        25 2K14:2 2C25:1
Jeroboam II      15th Amaziah 2K14:23            41 2K14:23
Azariah          27th Jeroboam II 2K15:1         52 2K15:2 2C26:3        16 2K15:2 2C26:3
Zechariah        38th Azariah 2K15:8              6mths 2K15:8
Shallum          39th Uzziah(?) 2K15:13           1mth  2K15:13
Menahem          39th Azariah 2K15:17            10 2K15:17
Pekahiah         50th Azariah 2K15:23             2 2K15:23
Pekah            52nd Azariah 2K15:27            20 2K15:27
Jotham            2nd Pekah 2K15:32              16 2K15:33 2C27:1       25 2K15:33 2C27:1
                                                    2C27:8                  2C27:8
Ahaz             17th Pekah 2K16:1               16 2K16:2 2C28:1        20 2K16:2 2C28:1
Hoshea           12th Ahaz 2K17:1                 9 2K17:1
                 20th Jotham 2K15:30
Hezekiah          3rd Hoshea 2K18:1              29 2K18:2 2C29:1        25 2K18:2 2C29:1



* REMAINING JUDEAN KINGDOM *



         -          7th of Hezekiah              1 -         H/Israel without a king
         |                                         |
         |          14th of Hezekiah             8 -
     +23 |                                         |
         |          ** Jubilee ** 2700 BT       10 -
         |                                         |
         -          Manasseh s/k                23 -
         |                                         |
         |          Manasseh captive            50 - 50      H/ISRAEL NOT A PEOPLE 2660 BT
      55 |                                         |         (Esarhaddon / Osnapper)
         |          Manasseh released (Jubilee) 60 -
         |                                         |
         -          Amon                        77 -
       2 |                                         |
         -          Josiah                      78 -
         |                                         |
      31 |                                         |
         |          Josiah 13th                 90 - 90      1st Jeremiah (13th Josiah)  -
         |                                         |                                     |
         -          Jehoahaz                   108 -                                     |
     .25 |                                         |                                     | 23
         -          Jehoiakim                  109 -                                     |
         |                                         |                                     |
         |          Jehn-1st reign             110 -                                     |
         |                                         |                                     |
         |                                         - 111     Daniel/Jehn taken           |
         |                                         |                                     |
      11 |                                         - 112     4th Jehkm,23rd Jer(1st Neb) -
         |                                         |                                     |
         |                                         - 113     Daniel tested (2nd Neb)     |
         |                                         |                                     |
         |                                         |                                     |
         -          Jehn-2nd reign                 - 119     8th Neb, Captivity          | 19
                                                   |                                     |
         -          Zedekiah                   120 - 120     30th Jer, 5th Jehn          |
         |                                         |                                     |
         |                                         - 122     Jehn release                |
      11 |                                         |                                     |
         |                                         - 123     To Babylon 4th yr,Jer51:59  |
         |                                         |                                     |
         |                                         - 128     Jerusalem besieged          |
         |                                         |                                     |
         -          JERUSALEM BREACHED 2580 BT 130 - 130     JERUSALEM DESOLATED         -
                                                             (19th Neb, 12th captivity)

* NOTES *


- A Jubilee falls in the reign of Hezekiah, refer 2K19:29 & Isa
  37:30.
            Timing - In the 14th year of Hezekiah, Hezekiah gives
                     tribute to Sennacherib king of Assyria by
                     taking gold from the doors of the temple of
                     the LORD, 2K18:13-16.
                   - Because of this God smote Hezekiah with sickness.
                     However, Hezekiah repented and God promised to
                     extend Hezekiah's life another 15 years (length
                     of reign 29 years = 14 + 15 yrs) and deliver him
                     from Assyria. 2K20:1-11.
                   - In the 15th year of Hezekiah, Hezekiah apparently
                     fails to pay an annual tax to Assyria and
                     Sennacherib sends his army against Jerusalem,
                     2K18:17-20.
                   - At this time God assures Hezekiah of deliverance
                     through the prophet Isaiah. According to the
                     words of Isaiah this 15th year is a land Sabbath
                     year and the following year (the 16th of King
                     Hezekiah) is also a year of land rest (ie, a
                     Jubilee year).
                   - At 2700 BT, this would be the 16th Jubilee year
                     if the first Jubilee was celebrated 50 years
                     after the Exodus, ie at 3450 BT. (When the land
                     of Canaan was considered to be under Israelite
                     control).

- During the reign of Manasseh, God delivered up Manasseh to captivity
  under the hand of a king of Assyria (2 Chr 33:11), presumably at the
  same time that the rest of the people of the house of Israel were
  relocated. (When Esarhaddon settled foreigners in the territory of
  the house of Israel, Ezra 4:2.)
  2 Chr 33:13 records the return of Manasseh to Jerusalem and this
  is likely to have occurred 10 years later at the time of the next
  Jubilee.

- The latter years of the kings of Judah are normally presented,
  as they are above, as essentially being composed of 31 years for
  Josiah followed by 11 years for Jehoiakim and after that 11 years
  for Zedekiah (adjustments being made for inclusive counting).
  However, the reader should be aware that the book of Jeremiah in
  verses 27:1,3 & 28:1 does indicate that the reigns of Zedekiah
  and Jehoiakim overlapped.
  It should also be pointed out that this is highlighted in the
  differences one finds in the accounts of Kings and Chronicles
  for this period.
      Kings      - Jehoiachin reigns after Jehoiakim dies, 2K24:6
                 - Jehoiachin reigns age 18 years for 3 months,
                   2K24:8
                 - Egypt is not a threat to Babylon, 2K24:7.
      Chronicles - Jehoiachin reigns after Jehoiakim is taken
                   away bound in bronze fetters, 2C36:6
                 - Jehoiachin reigns age 8 years for 3 months
                   and 10 days, 2C36:9
                 - Zedekiah made to swear an oath not to call
                   upon the assistance of Egypt, 2C36:13 (also
                   refer Ezek 17:13&15).
  [ NB: Such an overlap, if is exists, would normally effect the
        overall chronology, but it seems there is reason to believe
        it would be compensated for by;
             - a delay in Josiah claiming the throne, note his
               young age when crowned and the fact that it was
               the people (and not him) who judged his father's
               murders, 2K21:24.
             - The years when Jehoiakim was held prisoner by
               Nebuchadnezzar, 2C36:6 & 2K24:1. ]

- The chronology of the Josiah period appears at first to be
  straight forward, ie simply a reign of 31 years. However, on
  closer inspection it can be seen that the accounts of Kings
  and Chronicles do not harmonise.
      Kings      - 18th year Book of the Law found, 2K22:1,8
                 - Covenant made 2K23:1-3
                 - Purges Judah and Israel, 2K23:4-20
                 - 18th year a great Passover observed, 2K23:22-23.
      Chronicles - 8th year of reign begins to seek God, 2C34:3
                 - 12th year begins to purge Judah and Jerusalem,
                   2C34:3
                 - 18th year of reign Book of the Law found, 2C34:8
                   & 2C34:14
                 - Covenant made, 2C34:31.
                 - Removes abominations from the land of the house
                   of Israel, 2C34:33
                 - 18th year of dominion a great Passover observed,
                   2C35:18-19.

- 'Tenth' month.

  Jerusalem besieged on the 10th day of the 'tenth' month of the
  9th year of ?. 2K25:1, Ezek 24:1

  The Hebrew Tenth Month? is normally rendered 'tenth',
  However, it can also refer to the notion of 'accumulated'
  or 'rich' or 'enriched of'.
  This would indicate that it was not the tenth month, but
  rather a month which was added when the harvest crop was
  not ripe enough to harvest in the usual month. (Or perhaps
  due to an enemy siege of Jerusalem preventing the offering
  of a new year's wave sheaf, which was a required precursor
  to the start of a grain harvest.)

  [ NB: The biblical year did not span a full 365 days,
        so an additional month was added when necessary.
        To ensure harmony with the seasons.
        Jewish belief often refers to this as a 13th month,
        but it appears that indications in this and the Flood
        chronology suggest that this was not counted as a 13th
        month of the preceding year, but rather an added 1st
        month of the new year. ]

  A first month arrival of the Babylonian army, rather than a
  tenth month arrival, makes more sense because an intended siege
  of a city would be more time effective if timed to begin just
  prior to the start of a new year's grain harvest. 

  Jerusalem penetrated on the 9th day of the fourth month. Jer 39:2.
  11th year of Zedekiah. Jer 39:2.
  [ NB: 2K25:2   11th = in Hebrew 'year ten one-of until',
        Jer 39:2 11th = in Hebrew 'year ten in-one-of'. ]

  It is interesting to note that if the siege began on the 10th day
  of a 1st month and was ended in that same year on the 9th day of
  the 4th month then exactly 3 months would have passed.
  This would then equate to the exact time Jehoiachin, being 18
  years old, happens to have reigned, ie '3 months'. Refer K24:8.
  (Admittedly common translations/interpretations indicate the
  siege lasted from the 9th to the 11th year of Zedekiah. Although,
  a 3 month duration, given the circumstances, seems more likely.)

  When Jehoiachin was younger, when he was 8 years old, he also
  reigned, but this time for 3 months and 10 days. 2C36:9-10.
  Jehoiachin's reign at this earlier time, rather than coinciding
  with the end of Zedekiah's reign, actually preceded the start
  of Zedekiah's reign.

- The stated ages of kings Jehoahaz, Jehoiakim and Zedekiah when they
  started to reign, 23 yrs, 25 yrs and 21 yrs respectively, are not in
  harmony with their sequence of birth.
  Jehoiakim 2nd born, Zedekiah 3rd born and Jehoahaz (also known as
  Shallum - refer Jer 22:11-12) 4th born, as clearly stated in
  1Chron 3:15.
  As the term 'son of' in Hebrew does not always relate to a persons
  age, but to a significant event in their life, it seems Zedekiah's
  age (which is too low) could relate to the year when the great
  Passover was held in the reign of Josiah.

- The prophesying of Jeremiah began in the 13th of Josiah and the
  23rd year of his service was the 4th of Jehoiakim. Jer 25:1-3.

- Nebuchadnezzar surrounds Jerusalem 3rd Jehoiakim, Dan 1:1.
  Daniel tested 2nd Nebuchadnezzar, Dan 2:1.
    - Daniel was given 3 years of training (Dan 1:5).
        - the 3rd year of Jehoiakim was the 1st year of this training.
        - the 4th of Jehoiakim equated to the 1st of Nebuchadnezzar
          (refer Jer 25:1) and was the 2nd year of training.
        - the 2nd of Nebuchadnezzar was the 3rd year of training
          and was the year of Nebuchadnezzar's dream.

- Nebuchadnezzar's reign is deemed to have started in the 4th year
  of Jehoiakim (refer Jer 25:1).
  However, one should note that Nebuchadnezzar is first mentioned
  one year earlier in the 3rd year of Jehoiakim, Dan 1:1.
  In the 4th year of Jehoiakim, Nebuchadnezzar defeated the army of
  Pharaoh Necho, Jer 46:2. Note, that the army of Egypt reappears
  on the scene during the reign of Zedekiah, 37:1,5.

- Jeremiah 52:28-30;   7th year of (Neb.?)   =  3,023  captives
                      18th year of Neb.      =    832  captives
                      23rd year of Neb.      =    745  captives
                                                -----
                                                4,600  
  Chapter 52 of Jeremiah records the above information and these
  dates do not align with those stated in other texts.
    - The captivity of Jehoiachin and his mother is recorded to
      have taken place on the 8th of Nebuchadnezzar (refer 2K24:12)
    - The captivity connected to the fall of Jerusalem took place
      on the 19th of Nebuchadnezzar (refer 2K25:8, Jer 52:12).
    - The 18th yr of Nebuchadnezzar was the 10th yr of Zedekiah
      (refer Jer 32:1) and Jerusalem was not breached until the
      11th yr of Zedekiah (2K25:1-2).
  Hence the dates indicated 7th and 18th of Nebuchadnezzar are a
  year too low. This may suggest they therefore correlate with when
  God started to deal personally with Nebuchadnezzar, when the king
  had his first dream, ie in the second year of his reign (Dan 2:2).
  Or it may reflect the different timings for the start of the reign
  of Nebuchadnezzar, ie 3rd(Dan 1:1) and 4th(Jer 25:1) of Jehoiakim.
  The 23rd date seems to relate to the subsequent captivity of the
  Israelites who fled to Egypt, refer Jer 43:11,24:8. (Since there
  is also a full 7 year period when Nebuchadnezzar is humbled,
  chapter 4 of Daniel, the actual fall of Egypt may have occurred
  in the 30th year, ie 23 + 7 years.)

- Ezekiel 33:21 states that Ezekiel heard news of Jerusalem being
  'struck down' on the 5th day of the 10th month of the 12th year
  of their captivity.

  Jerusalem had been,
          a) breached on the 9th day of the 4th month,
             (2K25:3,Jer 39:2).
          b) burnt on the 10th day of the 5th month,
             (Jer 52:12).
  Therefore, it had taken 5 months for the news to reach Ezekiel.
  But more importantly, the year Jerusalem was 'struck down' was
  the 12th year of their captivity. Since Zedekiah only reigned
  11 years (2K24:18), this indicates that Zedekiah's reign began
  in the year following the captivity of the 8th year of the reign
  of Nebuchadnezzar (2K24:12).
  The 12th year of captivity also appears to be confirmed by the
  different datings of attributed to Nebuchadnezzar,
      - Jerusalem falls 19th, but captivity on the 8th: a span
        of 12 years when counted inclusively
      - Jerusalem falls 18th, but captivity on the 7th: a span
        of 12 years when counted inclusively.

- Ezekiel 1:1-2, 30th of Jeremiah is the 5th of the captivity
  of Jehoiachin.

- Daniel 12:11-12, 1290 & 1335 days.
                   These equate to 2580 years and 2670 years
                   (ie double).
                   - 2580 years = Abomination to Abomination
                                = Nebuchadnezzar and the princes in
                                  the 'middle gate' (of the temple),
                                  refer Jer39:3, to the future Great
                                  Tribulation.
                   - 2670 years = House of Israel 'not a people' to
                                  the end of corrupt faith (ie the
                                  end of the Great Tribulation).
                   Note: To convert the 2670 years to provide a
                         period ending with the start of the Great
                         Tribulation deduct 10 years. House of Israel
                         'not a people' to start of Tribulation equals
                         2660 years.
                         Therefore house of Israel 'not a people' to
                         Nebuchadnezzar and the princes standing in
                         the middle gate is 80 years.

- Ezekiel chapter 4, 390 & 40 yrs
                     - 390 years = Divided kingdom to the fall of
                                   Judah.
                     -  40 years = Jeremiah to fall of Judah.

* REFERENCES *


NAME             TIMING                          DURATION                AGE


Manasseh                                         55 2K21:1 2C33:1        12 2K21:1 2C33:1
Amon                                              2 2K21:19 2C33:21      22 2K21:19 2C33:21
Josiah                                           31 2K22:1 2C34:1         8 2K22:1 2C34:1
Jehoahaz,Shallum                                  3mths 2K23:31 2C36:2   23 2K23:31 2C36:2
Jehoiakim                                        11 2K23:36 2C36:5       25 2K23:36 2C36:5
Jehoiachin,Jeconiah,Coniah                        3mths 2K24:8           18 2K24:8
                                                  3mths 10 days 2C36:9    8 2C36:9
Zedekiah                                         11 2K24:18 2C36:11      21 2K24:18 2C36:11
                                                    Jer 52:1                Jer 52:1
Jeremiah         13th Josiah Jer25:3             23 Jer25:3
                 to 4th Jehoiakim Jer 25:1
Nebuchadnezzar   4th Jehoiakim Jer 25:1          19 2K25:8,Jer52:12
                 to Fall of City 2K25:8          5th mth Jer 1:3,2K25:8






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